- Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE AND LAND-USE CHANGES IMPACT ON WATER SECURITY IN AMBON CITY, INDONESIA USING SPATIAL MODELING
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Ambon City is the center of national activities in Maluku province, established under Presidential Decree 77 of 2014 about spatial planning of Maluku Islands. Ambon is a strategic region in terms of development of agriculture and fisheries sector. Development of the region make this area extremely vulnerable to the issues on water security. There are seven watersheds that affect the water system in Ambon City, which are Air Manis, Hutumury, Passo, Tulehu, Wae Batu Merah, Wae Lela and Wae Sikula. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the impact of climate and land use change on water availability in seven watersheds in Ambon City. The analysis was performed by using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model to analyze climate change on the period 1987-1996 (past), period 2004-2013 (actual) and climate projection on the period 2035s (future) and analyze land use data in 1996 and 2014. The results of the research indicate that land use in the study area had changed since 1996 to 2014. Forest area decrease around 32.45%, residential areas and agriculture land increase respectively 56.01% and 19.80%. The results of SWAT model, present the water availability on the period 1987-1996 amount to 1,127.01 million m3/year and the period 2004-2013 decreased around 4.48% or to be 1,076.55 million m3/year. The results of the prediction of water availability in the future (period 2035s) estimated water availability in the study area will decrease water availability around 4.69% which is to be 1,026.09 million m3/year. The conditions describe land use and climate change has greatly contributed to the level of water availability in seven watersheds in Ambon City. Land use planning in the Ambon City really need to be considered especially in applying spatial plan. The forest area necessary to maintain. Land had developed into built-up area, it is necessary to implement of green space and water harvesting in order to maintain water security in the future.
Climate Change; Land use Change; Water Security; Landuse Planning
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