Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.2.157-163

Article Info
Submitted: 24-04-2017
Published: 25-06-2017
Section: Articles

This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above sea level). The results showed that the weight of the flour, the water content and ash content in the local rubber seeds larger than the superior rubber seed for all altitude, but oil content a large in the superior rubber seeds. The major of fatty acids in the rubber seed oil in all types and altitude are a linoleic acid with a different percentage except local rubber seed oil from Lahat district with the large percentage of octadecanoic acid. Free fatty acids in the oil from the superior seeds rubber of 13.897-15.494 % large than local rubber seed oil was found 9.786-10.399 % for all altitude. By esterification process using sulfuric acid catalyst, Free Fatty Acid (FFA) can be reduced to ≤ 2 %. The methyl ester made from the transesterification process of rubber seed oil after esterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Analysis of methyl esters includes cetane index, flash point, kinematic viscosity, carbon residue, density, moisture content, water and sediment content and distillation compared with SNI 7182 and ASTM 6751-02.  The result indicated that the quality of methyl ester from superior rubber seed oil in the Banyuasin and Prabumulih district better than another methyl ester. The types of rubber seed altitude affect the characteristics of the seed, oil and methyl ester  but the altitude are not significantly different.

Keywords: rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel

Article History: Received March 21st 2017; Received in revised form May 5th 2017; Accepted June 2nd 2017; Available online

How to Cite This Article: Salni, S, Hariani, P.L. and Marisa, H. (2017) Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(2), 157-163.

https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.2.157-163

Keywords

rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel

  1. Salni Salni 
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia , Indonesia
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia
  2. Poedji Loekitowati Hariani 
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia , Indonesia
    Department of Chemistry
  3. Hanifa Marisa Hanifa 
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia , Indonesia
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia

Abdulkadir, B.A., Yoshimitsu, U., Anita, R., Noridah, Bt, O., Katsuki, K., & Takami, K. (2015)Production of Biodiesel from Rubber Seeds (Hevea Brasiliensis) by In Situ Transesterification Method. Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy, 94,763-768

Andrian, Supriadi., & Purba, M. (2014) The Effect of Elevation and Slope on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) Production in PTPN III Hapesong Farm of South Tapanuli. Jurnal Online Agroteknologi, 2(3), 981:989

Ahmad, J., Suzana, Y., Awais, B., & Ruzaimah, N.M.K. (2014) Biodiesel production from the High Free Fatty Acid “Hevea Brasiliensis” and Fuel Properties Characterization. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 625, 897-900

Awulu1, J.O., Ogbehb, G.O., & Asawac. (2015) Comparative Analysis of Biodiesels from Calabash and Rubber Seeds Oils. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 4(2), 131-136

Bello, E.I., & Otu, F. (2015) Physicochemical Properties of Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Seed Oil, Its Biodiesel, and Blends with Diesel. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 6(3), 261-275

Chuah, L.F., Suzana, Y., Abdul, R.A.A., Jiri, J.K., Awais, B., & Mohd, Z.A. (2015) Influence of Fatty Acids Content in Non-Edible Oil for Biodiesel Properties. Clean Techn Environ Policy, 1-10

Dizajeyekan, Y.I., Ahmad, R.H., & Tohid, E.G. (2016) Regional Altitude and Soil Physicochemical Factors Influence the Essential Oil of Thymus pubescens (Lamiales: Lamiaceae). J. Biol. Environ. Sci., 10(29), 45-51

Gimbun, J., Shahid, A., Chitra, C.S.C.K., Liyana, A.S., Nurul, H.M.G., Chin, K.C., & Said, N. (2012) Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil Using A Limestone Based Catalyst. Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, 2, 138-141

Hossain, A.B.M.S., & Mazen, M.A. (2010) Effects of Catalyst Types and Concentrations on Biodiesel Production from Waste Soybean Oil Biomass as Renewable Energy and Environmental Recycling Process. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4(7), 550-555

Ibrahim, A.M., & Pillai, B.C. (2011) Optimization of Process Parameters for Biodiesel Extraction from Rubber Seed Oil Using Central Composite Design. International Journal of Production Technology and Management Research, 2(1), 2229-3140

Ikwuagwu, O.E., Ononogbu, I.C., & Njoku, O.U. (2000) Production of Biodiesel Using Rubber [(Hevea Brasiliensis(Kunth. Muell)] Seed Oil. Industrial Crops and Products, 12, 57-62

Ketaren, S. (1986) Pengantar Teknologi Minyak dan Lemak Pangan, UI Press, Jakarta

Khazaai, S.N.M., Gaanty, P.M., Mohd, H.A.R., Mashitah, M.Y., & Yukihiko, M. (2017) Review on Methyl Ester Production from Indible Rubber Seed Oil under Various Catalyst. Industrial Crops and Products, 97, 191-195

Kittigowittana, k., Wongsakul, S., Krisdaphong, P., jimtaisong, A., & Saewan, N. (2013) Fatty Acid Composition and Biological Activities of Seed Oil from Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Cultivar RRIM 600. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, 6(2), 1-7

Kouzu, M., Kasuno, T., Tajika, M., Yamanaka, S. & Hidaka, J. (2008) Active Phase of Calcium Oxide used as Solid Base Catalyst for Transesterification of Soybean Oil with Refluxing Methanol. Applied Catalysis, 334(1-2), 357-365

Laza, T., & Bereczky, C. (2010) Basic Fuel Properties of Rapeseed Oil-Higher Alcohol Blends. Fuel, 20(2), 803-810

Marchetti, J.M., and Errazu, A.F. (2008) Esterification of Free Fatty Acids using Sulfuric Acid as Catalyst in the Presence of Triglycerides. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32(9), 892-895

Pianthong, K., & Prachasanti, T. (2009) Production of Biodiesel Seed Oil and Its Effects to Engine Performances. International Conference on Energy Security and Climate Change: Problems & Issues in GMS.

Ramadhas, A.S., Jayaraj, S., & Muraleedharan, C. (2005) Biodiesel Production from High FFA Rubber Seed Oil. Fuel, 84, 335-340

Satyanarayana, M., & Muraleedharan, C. (2010) Methyl ester Production from Rubberseed Oil using Two-Step Pretreatment Process. International Journal Of Green Energy, 7(1), 84–90.

Shams, M., Mahdi, R., Sasan, Z.E., Ehsan, Z.E., Atilla, D., & Ertan, Y. (2016) Effects of Climatic Factors on the Quantity of Essential Oil and Dry Matter Yield of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(6), 1-4

Setyamidjaja, D. (1993) Karet: Budidaya dan Pengolahan. Kanisius. Yogyakarta

Rouas, S., Mohammed, R., Abdrraouf, E.A., Lahoussaine, B., Drissia, J.I., Abdelaziz, S., & Nadia, M. (2016) Effect of Geographical Conditions (Altitude and pedology) and Age of Olive Plantations on the Typicality of Olive Oil In Moulay Driss Zarhoun. Mediterranean Journal of Biosciences, 1(3), 128-137

Widayat, Agam, D.K.W., & Hadiyanto. (2013) Study on Production Process of Biodiesel from Rubber Seed (Hevea Brasiliensis)by In Situ (Trans)esterification Method with Acid Catalyst. International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application, Energy Procedia, 32, 64-73

Widayat., W & Suherman, S. (2012) Biodiesel production from Rubber seed Oil via Esterification Process. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 192), 57-60

Yousif, E., Bashar, A., Hanan, I., Jumat, S., & Nadia, S. (2013) Rubber Seed Oil Properties, Authentication and Quality Assesment Using (Chloroform: Methanol) as Solvent. Journal of Al-Nahrain University, 16(3), 1-6

Zamberi, M.M., & Ani, F.N. (2016) Biodiesel Production from High FFA Rubber Seed Oil Using Waste Cockles. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(12), 7782-7787