Wind Power Generation in India: Evolution, Trends and Prospects
Article Metrics: (Click on the button below to see the detail)
In the present context of shrinking conventional resources coupled with environmental perils, the wind power offers an attractive alternative. Wind power generation in India started way back in early 1980s with the installation of experimental wind turbines in western and southern states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. For first two decades of its existence until about 2000 the progress was slow but steady. In last one decade Indian wind electricity sector has grown at very rapid pace which has promoted the country to the fifth position as largest wind electric power generator and the third largest market in the world. The galvanization of wind sector has been achieved through some aggressive policy mechanisms and persistent support by government organizations such as MNRE and C-WET. This paper articulates the journey of Indian wind program right since its inception to the present trends and developments as well as the future prospects.
Keywords: mnre, c-wet, renewable energy, wind power, wind turbines.
Abbasian, M., Arash, H., Isfahani, Saeideh, S., Farid, S. (2011) Effects of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator and WindTurbine Parameters on the Performance of a Small-Scale Wind Power Generation System. PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY (Electrical Review) (87), 360-363
Alemayehu, N.A. (2011) Multiphase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators For Offshore Wind Enegy System Control Of Six Phase Pmsg- Six Leg Converter System. M. S Dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Ahlstrom, A. (2005) Aeroelastic Simulation of Wind Turbine Dynamics, Doctoral Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
Ahshan, R. & Iqbal, M.T. (2009) Voltage Controller of a Single Phase Self-Excited Induction Generator. The Open Renewable Energy Journal (2), 84-90.
Al-Majed, S.I. & Fujigaki, T. (2010) Wind Power Generation: An Overview. Paper presented at the Modern Electric Power Systems Symposium, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw Poland, September 20-22, Pap_ID:80.
Anonymous (2012) UK: Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Generates Power, Retrieved from http://www.offshorewind.biz /2012/09/07/uk-greater-gabbard-offshore-wind-farm-generat es-power/ accessed on February 5,2013.
Anonymous (2013). Retrieved from Mop.rajasthan.gov.in/ wind_policy.asp accessed on March 8, 2013.
Atlam, O. (2010) A small scale education experiment kit with wind generator-PEM electrolyser system and modeling. Turkish Jornal of Electrical Engineering & Comp Science, 18(4): DOI: 10.3906/elk-0812-18.
Athanas, A.K. & McCormick, N. (2013) Clean energy that safeguards ecosystems and livelihoods: Integrated assessments to unleash full sustainable potential for renewable energy. Renewable Energy (49), 25-48
Bansal, R.C. (2005 ) Three-Phase Self-Excited Induction Generators: An Overview. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 20(2), 292-299.
Boldea, I. (2006) Variable Speed Generators. The Electric Generators Handbook by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Bob, Y. (2013) Japan to replace nuclear plant with world's largest wind farm, an article accessed on line at http://phys.org.
Carballido, H.A.L. (2009) Control of a wind turbine equipped with a variable rotor resistance: Thesis For The Degree of Master of Science, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Electric Power Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, May 2009.
Carlin, P.W., Laxson, A.S., & Muljadi, E.B. (2003), The History and State of the Art of Variable-Speed wind Turbine Technology, Wind Energy, Wind Energ. 6, 129–159.
Centre for Wind Energy Technology. (2013a) The Charter. Retrieved from www.cwet.tn.nic.in/html/ aboutus_charter.html, accessed on January 15, 2013.
Centre for Wind Energy Technology. (2013b) List of Monitoring Stations. Retrieved from www.cwet.tn.nic.in/html/ departments_wms.html accessed on February 15, 2013.
Chaubey, R.N. & Saket, R.K. (2012) Development of a cost effective wind power generation system: an overview. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, 10(3), 472-480
Chauhan, Y.K., Sanjay, K.J., & Bhim, S. (2012) Performance of self-excited induction generator with cost effective static compensator. Maejo International Journal of Science Technology, 6(01), 12-27.
CII (Confederation of Indian Industry) Karnataka Conference on Power. (2012) Sustainable Power through Renewable Sources, Aug’2012”, A Report, available at http://www.pwc.in/assets / pdfs/grid/renewable-energy/cii-report_-240812-sustainable-po wer-through-renewable-energy-updated.pdf, accessed on 10/3/13.
Dabou, S.M., Abd El-Wahab, H. & Essam M.R. (2012) Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive System Fed from Five-Phase Matrix-Converter. Paper presented at the IEEE 15th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’12), Alexandria University, Egypt, December 23-25, Paper ID 302, pp 898-903.
Dahlquist, E., Iana, V., Fredrik, W., Eva, T., & Jinyue, Y. (2011) Optimization of the Energy System to Achieve a National Balance Without Fossil Fuels. International Journal of Green Energy, Taylor and Francis Group, (8), 684–704
Earnest, J. & Tore, W. (2011) Wind Power in India, In the Book “Wind Power Plants and Projects Development.” by PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi India.
Edward, M., & Ellis, A. (2010) Wecc Wind Generator Development: Final Project Report. Prepared for CIEE By:National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Eriksson, S., Hans, B., Mats, L. (2008) Evaluation of different turbine concepts for wind power, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12, 1419–1434.
Fraile-Ardanuy, J., Jesus, F.M., Pedro A., Garcia-Gutierrez. (2012) Voltage control of isolated self-excited induction generator through series compensation. Prezglad electrotechniczny (Electrical review), (R.88) NR 1a:132-136.
Gasch, R. & Twele, J. (eds.) (2012) Wind Power Plants: Fundamentals, Design, Construction 15 and Operatio, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-22938-1_2.
GWEC (Global Wind Energy Council). (2012) India Wind Energy Outlook -2012, November’ 2012. Available at gwec. net, accessed on 31/01/13.
GWEC (Global Wind Energy Council). (2013) Global Wind Statistics-2012 dated 11/02/2013. available at http://www.gwec.net/wp- content / uploads /2013/02/GWEC - PRstats- 2012_ english.pdf, accessed on 16/02/2013.
Hansen, L.H., Helle, L., Blaabjerg, F., Ritchie, E., MunkNielsen, S., Bindner, H., S¯rensen, P., & Bak-Jensen, B. (2001) Conceptual survey of generators and power electronics for wind turbines. Riso National Laboratory Technical Report Riso-R-1205(EN) Roskilde, Denmark.
Hansen, A.H., Hansen, L.H. (2007) Wind turbine concept market penetration over 10 years 1995– 2004). Wind Energy, 10(1), 81–97.
Hinrichs-Rahlwes, R. (2013) Renewable energy: Paving the way towards sustainable energy security: Lessons learnt from Germany. Renewable Energy 49, 10-14.
Jones, M. &Levi, E. (2002) A literature survey of state-of-the-art in multiphase AC drives. Paper presented at the 37th International Universities Power Engineering Conference UPEC, Stafford, UK, CD-ROM Paper No. 46, pp. 505-510.
Kaldellis, J.K. & Zafirakis, D. (2011) The wind energy (r)evolution: A short review of a long history. Renewable Energy, 36, 1887-1901.
Kasthoorirangaian, K. (2012) Post budget Memorandum - Request for Continuation of Accelerated Depreciation in Budget for 2012. Letter addressed to Hon’able Finance Minister of India by Indian Wind Power Association, WINDPRO Magazine, 174:3, available at www.windpro.org/pdf/Windpro Magazine - April 2012.pdf accessed on March 10, 2013.
Khan, M.F. & Khan, M.R. (2013)a. Various Facets of Wind Power. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, (3)8: 70-74.
Khan, M.F. & Khan, M.R., Atif, I. (2012) A Optimal Capacitance (Shunt) Required for a Self Excited Single Phase Induction Generator. Paper presented at the Int. Conf. On Emerg. Trend. in Engg. and Tech, TMU, India, April 6-7, ID:118.
Khan, M.F. & Khan, M.R., Atif. I. (2012)b Performance Analysis of Shunt, Short Shunt and Long Shunt Self Excited Induction Generator. Poster presented at the IEEE International conference on Power Electronics Drives and Energy Systems, IISc Bangalore, India, December 16-19, IEEE Xplore DOI: 10.1109 /PEDES .2012 .6484478.
Khan, M. R, Khan, M. F., Iqbal ,A. (2013)b. Investigation on Resonating Behaviour of a Self Excited Induction Generator. in the proceedings of IEEE Tencon-Spring, April 17-19, Sydney, Australia, Pap_ID:p82.
Levi, E., Bojoi, R., Profumo, F., Tolyat, H.A., & Williamson, S. (2007) Multiphase induction motor drives – a technology status review. Electric Power Application, IET (1), 489-516.
Levi, E. (2008) Multi- phase machines for variable speed applications. IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, (5) 55, 1893–1909.
Li, H. & Chen, Z. (2008) Overview of different wind generator systems and their Comparisons, IET Renew. Power Gener., 2(2), 123–138.
List of onshore wind farms (n.d) available at www. eendragt-wind.nl /list-of-onshore -windfamrs.ht ml, accessed on January 09, 2013.
Manwell, J.F., McGowan, J.G, &Rogers, A.L. (2002) Wind energy explained 1st ed. Amherst, USA: Wiley.
MNRE (2013) Strategic Plan for New and Renewable Energy Sector for the Period 2011-17. A report accessed available at http://mnre.gov.in/file-manager /UserFiles/strategic_ plan_mnre _2011_17.pdf accessed on February 20, 2013.
Molina, M.G. & Alvarez, J.M.G. (2011) Technical and Regulatory Exigencies for Grid Connection of Wind Generation, Energy Engineering, Retrieved from www. intechopen. com /source /html/ 17118/media/ image2.png downloaded on February 15, 2013.
Okundamiya, M.S. & Nzeakoba, A.N. (2012) Model for Optimal Sizing of a Wind Energy Conversion System for Green Mobile Applications. International Journal of Green Energy, Taylor and Francis Group, (10), 205-218.
Press Trust of India. (2012) Off shore farms to harness wind energy in India. The Economic Times available at http:// articles. economictimes .indiatimes.com/2012-12-10/news /35726603 1 wind-energy-offshore-wind-wind-farms, accessed on 19/02/ 2013.
Price, T.J. (2005) James Blyth- Britain’s first modern wind power pioneer. Wind Engineering, (3)29, 191-200
Madsen, P. H (n.d) India, Danida and RISO. Wind Energy Department, RISO National Laboratory available at www.risoe.dk/rispubl/SYS/syspdf/... /session 14_ madsenpre. pd. accessed on January 10, 2013.
Phadke, A., Ranjit, B., Jagmeet, K. (2012) Reassessing Wind Potential Estimates: Economic and Policy Implications. March-2012, International Energy Studies, Technologies Division Environmental Energy, Berkeley Lab, USA, available at http://ies.lbl.gov/node/473, accessed on 22/2/13.
Sanaeepur, S., Hamidreza, S., Ali, K. & Habibi, M.H. (2013) Renewable energies: climate-change mitigation and international climate policy. International Journal of Sustainable Energy, Taylor & Francis, London, UK.
Satyaraj, J.J. (2013) First Wind Farm Lies in a State of Neglect, a news report, available at http://ibnlive.in.com/news/first-wind-farm-lies-in-state-of-neglect/157065-60-118.html, accessed on 04/02/2013.
Samiran S. (2012) Offshore wind energy policy in the offing. Indian Express available at http:// newindianexpress .com / business/news/article583696.ece, accessed on 19/02/13.
Singh, B., Murthy, S.S. & Sushma, G. (2004) Analysis and Design of STATCOM-Based Voltage Regulator for Self-Excited Induction Generators. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, (4)19, 783-790.
Singh, M. & Surya, S. (2011) Dynamic Models for Wind Turbines and Wind Power Plants: Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-52780, The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas, USA.
Soe, K. A. & Wanna, S. (2011) Construction and Performance Testing of Small-Scale Wind Power System. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, (51), 156-160.
Szabó, L., Károly, Á. BIRÓ, Cosmina, N., Florin, J. (2007) Useful Simulation Tool for Induction Generators Used In Wind Power Plants. ©2007 IEEE, pp 574-579, available at www. researchgate.net/ Useful Simulation Tool for Induction Generators Used In Wind Power Plants.
Tapia, A., Tapia, G., J. Ostolaza, X., & Sáenz, J.R. (2003) Modeling and Control of a Wind Turbine Driven Doubly Fed Induction Generator. IEEE Transactions of Energy Conversion, (2)18, 194-204.
Yang T. C. (2008) An Initial Study of Using Rechargeable Batteries in Wind Power Generation with Variable Speed Induction Generators. IET proceedings: Renewable Power Generations, (2)2, 89-101.
Yang, T.C. (2007) A Novel Design to Enable Higher Penetration of Wind Power. Paper presented at the European Offshore Wind Conference & Exhibition, Berlin, Germany, December 4-6
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University as publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc. , will be allowed only with a written permission from International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University.
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, the Editors and the Advisory International Editorial Board make every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the International Journal of Renewable Energy Development are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.