Mekanisme Kerja Obat Anestesi Lokal

Ratno Samodro, Doso Sutiyono, Hari Hendriarto Satoto



Abstract


Regional anesthesia is growing and expanding its use, given the variety of benefits offered, such as relatively cheap, minimal systemic effects, produce adequate analgesia and the ability to prevent the stress response is more perfect. Local anesthetic drug is chemically divided into two major categories, namely the class of Amide and ester groups. These chemical differences are reflected in differences in the metabolism of the place, where the ester group is mainly metabolized by the enzyme pseudo-cholinesterase in the plasma while the Amide groups mainly through enzymatic degradation in the liver. This difference is also related to the magnitude of the possibility of allergies, in which the ester group derived from p-amino-benzoic acid has a greater frequency of allergic tendencies. Local anesthetic commonly used in our country for the class of esters are procaine, whereas the Amide groups are lidocaine and bupivacaine. Mechanism of action of local anesthetic drugs to prevent transmission of nerve impulses (conduction blockade) by inhibiting the delivery of sodium ions through selective sodium ion gates in neuronal membranes. Failure of the sodium ion permeability of the gate to increase the speed of depolarization of the slowdown as a potential threshold was not reached so that action potentials are not propagated. Local anesthetic did not alter the resting potential or transmembrane potential threshold. Pharmacokinetics of the drug include absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Complications of local anesthetic is a local side effects can occur at the injection site hematoma and abscess while systemic side effects such as neurological in the central nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, musculoskeletal, and hematologic Some local anesthetic drug interactions include coadministration may increase the potency of each drug. decreased metabolism of local anesthetics as well as increase the potential for intoxication.

ABSTRAK

Anestesi regional semakin berkembang dan meluas pemakaiannya, mengingat berbagai keuntungan yang ditawarkan, diantaranya relatif lebih murah, pengaruh sistemik yang minimal, menghasilkan analgesi yang adekuat dan kemampuan mencegah respon stress secara lebih sempurna. Secara kimiawi obat anestesi lokal dibagi dalam dua golongan besar, yaitu golongan ester dan golongan amide. Perbedaan kimia ini direfleksikan dalam perbedaan tempat metabolisme, dimana golongan ester terutama dimetabolisme oleh enzim pseudo-kolinesterase di plasma sedangkan golongan amide terutama melalui degradasi enzimatis di hati. Perbedaan ini juga berkaitan dengan besarnya kemungkinan terjadinya alergi, dimana golongan ester turunan dari p-amino-benzoic acid memiliki frekwensi kecenderungan alergi lebih besar. Obat anestesi lokal yang lazim dipakai di negara kita untuk golongan ester adalah prokain, sedangkan golongan amide adalah lidokain dan bupivakain. Mekanisme kerja obat anestesi local mencegah transmisi impuls saraf (blokade konduksi) dengan menghambat pengiriman ion natrium melalui gerbang ion natrium selektif pada membrane saraf. Kegagalan permeabilitas gerbang ion natrium untuk meningkatkan perlambatan kecepatan depolarisasi seperti ambang batas potensial tidak tercapai sehingga potensial aksi tidak disebarkan. Obat anestesi lokal tidak mengubah potensial istirahat transmembran atau ambang batas potensial. Farmakokinetik obat meliputi absorpsi, distribusi, metabolisme dan ekskresi. Komplikasi obat anestesi lokal yaitu efek samping lokal pada tempat suntikan dapat timbul hematom dan abses sedangkan efek samping sistemik antara lain neurologis pada Susunan Saraf Pusat, respirasi, kardiovaskuler, imunologi ,muskuloskeletal dan hematologi Beberapa interaksi obat anestesi lokal antara lain pemberian bersamaan dapat meningkatkan potensi masing-masing obat. penurunan metabolisme dari anestesi lokal serta meningkatkan potensi intoksikasi.

 


Graphical Abstract



Fulltext




Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.