BIODELIGNIFIKASI ENCENG GONDOK UNTUKMENINGKATKAN DIGESTIBILITAS PADA PROSESHIDROLISIS ENZIMATIK

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/reaktor.17.1.%25p

Article Info
Submitted: 05-11-2015
Published: 29-03-2017
Section: Research Article

Abstract

 

Water hyacinth is one of lignocellulose that has potential to bioethanol feedstocks. This is due to the high content of cellulose and hemicellulose its rapid growth and the plant is abundant in nature. Bioconversion of water hyacinth begins with biodelignification process. This biodelignification aims to remove lignin and reduce crystallinity  of cellulose and hemicellulose to increase its digestibility in enzymatic hydrolysis processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of biodelignification of water hyacinth using  fungi  and the effect on the digestibility of water hyacinth in the enzymatic hydrolysis process. In this study, Biodelignification using Solid State Fermentation (SSF) method using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium (PC). Hyacinth is inserted in a bioreactor and incubated for 28 days. The analysis of composition of water hyacinth is conducted every 4 days. After the biodelignification process followed by hydrolysis process using cellulase enzyme. Glucose generated from this hydrolysis process will be analyzed using the Somogyi Nelson method. The results show that biodelignification process can improve the digestibility of water hyacinths characterized by increased glucose yield. Without biodelignification process, glucose yield only reached 3.98%. After biodelignification prior to the hydrolysis process, the highest glucose yield was achieved at 67.66% for 16 days incubation.

 

Keywords: biodeglinification;glucose;hydrolysis;lignin; cellulast

 

Abstrak

 

Enceng gondok adalah salah satu lignoselulosa yang berpotensi untuk dijadikan bahan baku bioetanol. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kandungan selulosa dan hemiselulosa yang tinggi dan pertumbuhannya yang cepat sehingga ketersediaannya di alam sangat melimpah. Biokonversi enceng gondok dimulai dengan proses biodelignifikasi. Biodelignifikasi ini bertujuan menghilangkan lignin dan mengurangi kristalinitas selulosa dan hemiselulosa untuk meningkatkan digestibilitasnya pada proses hidrolisis enzimatik. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi pengaruh biodelignifikasi enceng gondok dengan jamur terhadap digestibilitas enceng gondok pada proses hidrolisis enzimatik. Biodelignifikasi pada penelitian ini menggunakan metode Solid State Fermentation (SSF) menggunakan jamur Phanerochaete Chrysosporium (PC). Enceng gondok dimasukan dalam sebuah bioreaktor dan diinkubasi selama 28 hari. Analisis perubahan komposisi enceng gondok dilakukan setiap 4 hari. Setelah proses biodelignifikasi dilanjutkan dengan proses hidrolisis menggunakan enzim selulase. Glukosa yang dihasilkan dari proses hidrolisis ini akan dianalisis menggunakan metode Somogyi Nelson. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses biodelignifikasi dapat meningkatkan digestibilitas enceng gondok yang ditandai dengan meningkatnya yield glukosa. Tanpa proses biodelignifikasi, yield glukosa hanya mencapai 3,98%. Setelah dilakukan biodelignifikasi sebelum proses hidrolisis maka yield glukosa tertinggi dicapai sebesar 67,66% selama 16 hari inkubasi.

 

Kata kunci:biodeglinifikasi;glukosa;hidrolisis;lignin; selulase

  1. eka - sari 
    , Indonesia
  2. S Syamsiah 
    Jurusan Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta
  3. Hary Sulistyo 
    Jurusan Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta
  4. Muslikhin Hidayat 
    Jurusan Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta

Datta, A., Bettermann, A. and Kirk,T.K.,(1981), Identification of a specific manganese peroxidase among lignolytic enzymes secreted by Phanerochaete Chrysosporium during wood decay, Appl. Environ.Microb., 57: 1453-1460.

Eka-Sari, (2010a), Studi penghilangan lignin pada enceng gondok sebagai bahan baku pembuatan bioetanol menggunakan basa kuat, Prosiding Seminar Teknik Kimia UNPAR: Pemanfaatan Biomassa untuk Pangan, Energi, dan Bahan Kimia, Bandung, halaman

Eka-Sari, (2010b), Study of lignin removal in water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) using low concentration of ammonia and the effect on yield glucose for bioethanol production, Proceeding of 17th Regional Symposium Chemical Engineering, Bangkok, Thailand, page 119-125.

Eka-Sari and Hemiati, E., (2010), Biodegradation lignin in water hyacinth (Echhornia Crassipes) using combination white rot fungi for bioethanol production, Proceeding of International Conference on Advances in Renewable Energy Technology, Kuala Lumpur,page 95-102.

Eka Sari, Siti Syamsiah, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat, 2011, “The Kinetic of Biodegradation Lignin in Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) by Phanerochaete Chrysosporium using Solid State Fermentation (SSF) Method for Bioethanol Production”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 54, 2011

Eka Sari, Siti Syamsiah, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat,” Study on the Effect of Material Size on the Lignin Removal and Biological Digestibility of Water Hyacinth for Bioethanol Production”, Proceeding of International Conference on Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (ICCBE 2013), 20-21 juni 2013, Istanbul, Turkey

Eka-Sari., Syamsiah, S., Sulistyo, H., Hidayat, M., 2014, “Effect of Biological Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Bioethanol Production”, Asian Journal of Chemistry, 26(20) : 6727-6732, DOI:10.14233/ajchem.2014.16596

Eka Sari, Siti Syamsiah, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat, 2015a, “Biological Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth by Solid State Fermentation of Phanerochaete Chrysosporium”, Modern Applied Science, 9(2): 228-234. doi:10.5539/mas.v9n2p228

Eka Sari, Siti Syamsiah, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat, 2015b, “Model of Phanerochaete chrysosporium Growth and Multisubstrate Degradation on The Biological Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth”, Advanced Material Research, 1101(2015): 280-285

Doi:10.4028/www.sciencetific.net/AMR.1101.280

Gunnarsson, C. and Petersen, C.M.,(2007), Water hyacinth as a resources agriculture and energy production: a literature review, Waste Management, 27(1):117–129

Hattaka, A., (2001), Biodegradation of lignin, In: Steinbiichel A.[Ed} Biopolimer Vol. 1: Lignin, Humic Substances and Coal. Germany: Wiley VCH pp. 129-180.

Shi, J., Chin, M.,and Sharma-Shivappa, R.R.,(2008), Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by solid state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium,Bioresources Technology, 99(14):6556-64.

Song, L., Yu, H.,Ma, F.,and Zhang, X.,(2013), Biologcal pretreatment under non-sterile conditions for enzymatic ydrolysis of corn stover, BioResources, 8(3): 3802-3816.

Sun, F., Li, J., Yuan, Y.,Yan, Z.,and Liu, X.,(2011), Effect of biological pretreatment with Trametes hirsuta yj9 on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover, J. Int Biodeterioration Biodegradation, 65(7): 931-938.

Taherzadeh, M.J. and Karimi, K., (2008), Pretreatment of lignocellulosic waste to improve ethanol and biogas production: a review, Internasional Journal of Molecular Science, 9: 1621-1651, ISSN 1422-0067.

Taniguchi, M., Suzuki, H.,Watanabe, D.,and Sakai,K.,(2005), Evaluation of pretreatment with pleurotus ostreatus for enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 1 :637-643.

Wan, C., (2011), Microbial pretreatment of corn stover with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production, Electronic Theses and Disertation of the Ohio State University https://etd.ohiolink.edu/ap/10?0::NO:10:P10_ACCESSION_NUM:osu1299689015.

Yu, H., Guo, G.,Zhang, X.,Yan, K.,and Xu, C.,(2009), The effect of biological pretreatment with the selective white-rot fungus Echinodontium Taxoodii on enzymatic hydrolisis of softwoods and Hardwoods, Bioresources Technology, 100 (5170-5175).

Zhang, X., Yu, H.,Huang, H.,and Liu, Y.,(2007), Evaluation of biological pretreatment with white rot fungi for the enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo culms. International Biodeterioration&Biodegradation, 60(3): 159-164, ISSN 0964-8305.