Electrochemical Processes for the Formation of Hydroxyapatite Powders

Adrian Nur -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111,, Indonesia
*Heru Setyawan -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111,, Indonesia
Arief Widjaja -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111,, Indonesia
I. Wuled Lenggoro -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Bio-Applications and System Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Nakacho 2-24-16, Tokyo,, Japan
Received: 10 Apr 2014; Published: 28 Oct 2014.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Cover Image
Article Info
Section: Original Research Articles
Language: EN
Full Text:
Statistics: 710 871
Abstract

Electrochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatite particles was performed from a homogeneous solution of Na2H2EDTA.2H2O, KH2PO4 and CaCl2 without stirring to investigate the mechanism of hydroxyapa-tite formation. We found that OH- ions generated by water reduction at the cathode play an important role in the formation of hydroxyapatite particles. The OH- ions induce the liberation of Ca2+ ions and the dissociation of phosphoric acid, which serve as the reactants for the formation of hydroxyapatite particles. Two layers with a clear boundary were formed during electrolysis. The upper layer comprises the produced particles and the lower layer is a homogeneous solution. The produced particles were held in the region between the electrodes mainly due to the electrostatic interactions of charged particles in an electric field. The hydroxyapatite particles are agglomerates consisting of spherical particles. Aging the suspension for 24 h after electrolysis leads to the transformation of hydroxyapatite to brushite. Thus, if producing hydroxyapatite is desired, the particles should be continuously removed from the system. This method appears to be promising as a continuous process to produce hydroxyapatite parti-cles using an electrochemical method. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved

Received: 10th April 2014; Revised: 25th May 2014; Accepted: 27th June 2014

How to Cite: Nur, A., Setyawan, H., Widjaja, A., Lenggoro, I.W. (2014). Electrochemical Processes for the Formation of Hydroxyapatite Powders. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3): 168-175. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.3.6686.168-175)

Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.6686.168-175

Keywords
hydroxyapatite powders; electrosynthesis; continuous process; electrostatic interaction

Article Metrics:

  1. Kim, W.S., Kim, W.S., Hirasawa, I. (2002). Changes in Crystalline Properties of Nanosized Hydroxyapatite Powders Prepared by Low-Temperature Reactive Crystallization. Journal of Chemical Engineerin of Japan, 35: 1203-1210.
  2. Martins, M.A., Santos, C., Almeida, M.M., Costa, M.E.V. (2008). Hydroxyapatite Micro-and Nanoparticles: Nucleation and Growth Mechanism in the Presence of Citrate Species. Journal of Colloid and Interface Scence, 318: 210-216.
  3. Tomozawa, M., Hiromoto, S. (2011). Microstructure of Hydroxyapatite- and Octacalcium Phosphate-Coatings Formed on Magnesium by a Hydrothermal Treatment at Various pH Values. Acta Materialia, 59: 355-363.
  4. Xin, R., Ren, F., Leng, Y. (2010). Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Crystalline Calcium Phosphates with EDTA-Assisted Hydrothermal Method. Materials Design, 31: 1691-1694.
  5. Banerjee, A., Bandyopadhyay, A., Bose, S. (2007). Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders: Synthesis, Densification and Cell–Materials Interaction. Materials Science and Engineering C, 27: 729–735.
  6. Fathi, M.H., Hanifi, A. (2007). Evaluation and Characterization of Nanostructure Hydroxyapatite Powder Prepared by Simple Sol–Gel Method. Materials Letter, 61: 3978–3983).
  7. Nasiri-Tabrizi, B., Honarmandi, P., Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, R., Honarmandi, P. (2009). Synthesis of Nanosize Single-Crystal Hydroxyapatite via Mechanochemical Method. Materials Letter, 63: 543–546.
  8. Montero, M.L., Sáenz, A., Rodríguez, J.G., Arenas, J., Castaño, V.M. (2006) Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanosized Hydroxyapatite. Journal of Materials Science, 41: 2141–2144.
  9. Djošić, M.S., Mišković-Stanković, V.B., Milonjić, S., Kaćarević-Popović, Z.M., Bibić, N., Stojanović, J. (2008). Electrochemical Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Powders. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 111: 137-142.
  10. Fajaroh, F., Setyawan, H., Widiyastuti, W., Winardi, S. (2012). Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles by Surfactant-Free Electrochemical Method in an Aqueous System. Advanced Powder Technology, 23: 328-333.
  11. Setyawan, H., Fajaroh, F., Widiyastuti, W., Winardi, S., Lenggoro, I.W., Mufti, N. (2012) One-Step Synthesis of Silica-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles by Electrooxidation of Iron in Sodium Silicate Solution. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 14: 807(1-9).