Effect of H3PO4 Concentration and Particle Size of the Eggshell Used in Laying Hens Fed on Bone and Blood

S. Kismiati, T. Yuwanto, Z. Zuprizal, S. Supadmo

DOI: https://doi.org/10.12777/ijse.5.1.12-14


The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of H3 PO4 concentrations and particle size of eggshell used in the feed of laying hens on bone and blood profiles. Ninety-six laying hens (Isa Brown strain) age 25 weeks were kept in individual battery cage and divided into 8 groups randomly. Group 1 was fed using eggshell with out H3PO4 and particle size of <1 mm (feed 1 ), group 2 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 3% and particle size of <1 mm (feed 2), group 3 were fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 4% and particle size of <1 mm (feed 3), group 4 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 5% and particle size of <1 mm (feed 4), group 5 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 and particle size of <3 mm (feed 5 ), group of 6 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 3% and particle size of <3 mm (feed 6), group 7 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 4 % and particle size of <3 mm (feed 7) and a group of 8 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 5% and particle size of <3 mm (feed 8). A Completely Randomized Design patterns factorial 4 x 2 x 3 was used in this research. Result of this research showed that had no interaction effect (P>0.05) between the H3PO4 concentration and particle size of eggshell on weight, volume, diameter of tibia bone and calcium and phosphorus content of the blood. The concentration of H3PO4 or particles size also had no effect (P>0.05) on all variables.

Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.1.12-14

[How to cite this article: Kismiati, S., Yuwanta, T., Zuprizal, and Supadmo. (2013). Effect of H3PO4 Concentration and Particle Size of the Eggshell Used in Laying Hens Fed on Bone and Blood. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(1),6-11. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.1.12-14]


Eggshell, H3PO4, Particle Size, Bone and Blood

Full Text:



Azar, H.R.E., Adl, K.N., Nezhad, Y.E. & Moghaddam, M., 2011. Effect of different levels and particle sizes of perlite on serum biochemical factors of broiler chicks. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10: 3232-3236.

Celebi, S., Bolukbasi, C. dan Utlu, N.. 2005. The influence of dietery phosphorus level on plasma calcium and phosphorus, eggshell calcium and phosphorus. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 4(7): 497- 499.

De Witt, F.H. , Kuleile, N.P. van der Merwe, H.J. and Fair, M.D.. 2009. Effect of limestone particle size on bone quality characteristics of hens at end-of-lay. South Africa J. of Anim. Sci. Supplement 1: 41-44.

Elble A. E, Hill, K.M , Park, C,Y. Martin, B.R. Peacock, M. and Weaver, C.M. 2009. Effect of calcium carbonate particle size on calcium absorption and retention in adolescent girls. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 30(3): 171-177.

Fard, M.K., Moghadam, H. N. and

Saki, A. A. 2010. Effect of different levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3 on the calcium, phosphorus and mgnesium of plasma, hatchability and performance on the broiler breeder hens. Research Journal of Biological Sciences 5(2): 223-227.

Fleming, R.H. 2008. Nutritional Factor Affecting Poultry Bone Health. In Proceedings of The Nutrition. Society, 67: 177 – 183. Symposium on Diet and Bone Health. doi: 10.1017/S0029665108007015.

Gongruttananun, N. 2011. Effects of eggshell calcium on productive performance, plasma calcium, bone mineralization, and gonadal characteristics in laying hens. Poult. Sci. 90: 524-529.

Hall, R.E. , Shirly, R.B., Bakalli, R.I., Aggrey, S.E., Pesti, G.M. and Edwards Jr H.M.2003. Power of two methods for the estimation of bone ash of broiler. Poult. Sci. 82: 414-418.

Herzig, I., Strakova, E. and Sucy, P. 2008. Long-term Application of Clinoptilolite Via the Feed of Layer and Its Impact on the Chemical Composition a Long Bones of Pelvic Limb (femur and tibiotarsus) and Eggshell. Veterinarni Medicina 53 (10): 550-554.

King’ori, A.M. 2011. A review of the uses of poultry eggshells and shell Membranes. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 10 (11): 908-912.

Kismiati, S., Yuwanta, T., Zuprizal dan Supadmo. 2012. The Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Eggshell Waste as Phosphorus Fortification: Its Effect on Egg Production and Eggshell Quality of Laying Hens. Proceedings of the The 1st Poult. Int. Seminar: 136 – 143.

Larbier, M. and H. Leclerq. 1994. Nutrition and Feeding of Poultry. Translated and Edited by J. Wiseman. University Press. Nottingham.

McDonald, P., Edwards, R.A. , Greenhalgh, J.F.D. and Morgan, C.A. 2002. Animal Nutrition. Six etiditon. Ashford Colour Press, Ltd, Gosport.

McNab and Boorman, K.N.. 2002. Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poultry Science Symposium Series 28. CABI Publishing.

Middleton, T. F. and Ferket, P. R. 2001. Effect of level of acidification by phosphoric acid, storage temperature, and length of storage on the chemical and biological stability of ground poultry mortality carcasses1. Poult. Sci. 80: 1144-1153.

N.R.C. 1994. Nutrient Requirement of Poultry. Ninth revised edition. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C.

North, M.O. 1984. Commercial Poultry Production. Second Edition. Avi Publishing Company, Inc. West Port, Connecticut.

Onyango, E.M., Hester, P.Y. , Stroshine, R. andAdeola, O. 2003. Bone densitometry as an indicator of percentage tibia ash in broiler chicks fed varying dietary calcium and phosphorus levels1. Poult. Sci. 82: 1787- 1791.

Pelicia, K. , Garcia, E.A. , Faitarone, A.B.G., Silva, A.P., Berto, D.A., Molino, A.B. and Vercese, F. 2009. Calcium and available phosphorus levels for laying hens in second production cycle. Brazilian J. Poult. Sci. 11(1): 39-49.

Pelicia, K., Maurao, J.L.M. , Gracia, E.A., Viheiro, V.M.C., Berto, D.A., Molino, A.B., Faitarone, A.B.G. , Vercese, F. , Santos, G.C. and Silvia, A.P. 2011. Effect of dietary calcium levels and limestone particle size on the performance, tibia and blood of laying hens. Brazilian J. Poult. Sci. 1(13): 29-34.

Pizzolante C.C., Gracia, E.A. , Legane, C. , Saldanha, E.S.P.B, Deotato, A.P., Faitarone, A.B.G., Scherer, M.R. and Batista, L. 2006. Effects of calcium levels and limestone particle size on the performance of semi-heavy layers in their second production cycle. Brazilian J. Poult. Sci. 8 (3): 173 - 176.

Rath, N.C. , Huff, G. R. and Balog, J.M. 2000. Factor regulating maturity and strength in poultry. Poult. Sci. 79: 1024 - 1032.

Rovenský J, Stancíková, M., Masaryk, P., Svík, K . and Istok, R. 2003. Eggshell calcium in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Res. 23 (2-3): 83-92.

Saunders-Blades , J. L. , MacIsaac, J. L. , Korver, D. R. and Anderson, D. M. 2009. The effect of calcium source and particle size on the production performance and bone quality of laying hens. Poult. Sci. 88 :338-353.

Schaafsma, A., Pakan, I. , Hofstede, G.J.H. Muskiet, F.A.J., Van Der Veer, E. and De Vries, P.J.F. 2000. Mineral, amino acid, and hormonal composition of chicken eggshell powder and the evaluation of its use in human nutrition. Poult. Sci. 79: 1833-1838.

Published by Department of Chemical Engineering University of Diponegoro Semarang
Google Scholar

IJSE  by http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/ijse is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.