Plants Growth Rate in Evapotranspiration continuous system reactors as the 2nd Treatment at Anaerobic-evapotranspiration system with High Strength Ammonium in Leachate Influent

Badrus Zaman, Purwanto Purwanto, Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo



Ammonium is one of parameter which responsible to leachate toxicity. Preliminary research was shown that the Fimbristylis globulosa (water plant), Alocasia macrorrhiza (terrestrial plant) and Eleusine indica (terrestrial grass) were potential plants for used as object in evaporation reactor system with high strength ammonium  concentration in leachate treatment. This research was integrated of anaerobic system with evapotranspiration system with continuous influent using ammonium concentration in leachate was 2000 mg/l NH4-N. Plants growth rate was analyzed for 25 days operated. The result shown that average of thallus growth rate of Fimbristylis globulosa was 17,5 cm d-1. The average of leaf and thallus growth rate of Alocasia macrorrhiza was 18,1 cm d-1 and 3,2 cm d-1 respectively. The average of blade and thallus of Eleusine indica were same that was 4,7 cm d-1.This research conclude that integration system of anaerobic and evpotranspiration was be potential used for high strength ammonium in leachate treatment.


Ammonium, Continuous system, Evapotranspiration, Leachate

Full Text:



Akinbile, C., Yusoff, M.S., Ahmad Zuki, A.Z. 2012. Landfill Leachate Treatment Using Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland By Cyperus. Waste Man. (In Press).

Aronsson, P, Dahlin ,T., Dimitriou, I.2010. Treatment of Landfill Leachate By Irrigation of Willow coppice – Plant Response and Treatment Efficiency. J.Env. Poll. 158 :795–804.

Baquerizo, G., Maestre, J. P., Sakuma, T., Deshusses, M. A.,Gamisans, X., Gabriel, D. and Lafuente,J.2005.A Detailed Model of Biofilter For Ammonia: Model Parameters Analysis and Model Validation. Chem. Eng. Journal., 113 (2-3): 205-214.

Barber, W.P. , Stuckey, D.C. 2000. Nitrogen Removal in A Modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR): 1, Denitrification. Wat. Res. 34 (9) : 2413-2422.

Bialowiec Andrzej, Randerson, P.F., Kopik,M. 2010. Using Fractal Geometry to Determine Phytotoxicity of Landfill Leachate on Willow. Journal Chemosphere 79:534–540.

Castillo, M., Barcelo, D., 2001. Characterization of Organic Pollutants in Textile Wastewaters and Landfill Leachates by Using Toxicity-Based Fractionation Methods Followed by Gas Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometric Detection. Analytica Chimica Acta. 426:253–264.

Clement, B., Janssen, R.C., Le D^u-Delepierre, A., 1997. Estimation of The Hazard of Landfills Through Toxicity Testing of Leachates. Chemosphere 35 (11):2783–2796.

Justin,M. Z., Zupancic,M.2009. Combined Purification and Reuse of Landfill Leachate Byconstructed Wetland and Irrigation of Grass and Willows. Desalination. 24:157 –168.

Justin, M.Z.,Pajk,N.,Zupanc,V.,Zupancic, M.2010. Phytoremediation of Landfill Leachate and Compost Wastewater by Irrigation of Populus and Salix: Biomass and Growth Response.Waste Management. 30:1032–1042.

Kantawanichkul,S.,Kladprasert,S.,Brix,H.2009. Treatment of High-Strength Wastewater in Tropical Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands Planted With Typha angustifolia and Cyperus involucratus. Ecol. Eng. 35 :238–247.

Kjeldsen, P., Barlaz, M.A. & Rooker, R., 2002. Present and Long-Term Composition of MSW Landfill Leachate: A Review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 32:297–336.

Lavrova, S.,Koumanova, B. 2010. Influence of Recirculation in A Lab-Scale Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland on the Treatment Efficiency of Landfill Leachate. Biores.Tech.101:1756–1761.

Marchand, L. Mench, M., Marchand, C., Le Coustumer, P., Kolbas, A., Maalouf, J.2011. Phytotoxicity Testing Of Lysimeter Leachates From Aided Phytostabilized Cu Contaminated Soils Using Duckweed (Lemna minor L.). Sci. of the Tot.Env. 410:146–153.

Marttinen, S.K., Kettunen, R.H., Sormunen, K.M., Soimasuo, R.M., Rintala, J.A., 2002. Screening of Physical–Chemical Methods for Removal of Organic Material, Nitrogen and Toxicity From Low Strength Landfill Leachates. Chemosphere 46 (6):851–858.

MCcutcheon, S. C.,S. E. Jorgensen. 2008. Phytoremediation. Chapter 2, (2ed.), Encyclopedia of Ecology. Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands, , 2751-2766.

Metcalf and Eddy, 1991. Wastewater Engineering, Treatment, Disposal and Reuse. 3rd Edn.McGraw-Hill.

Percy, I., Truong, P. 2003. Landfill Leachate Disposal with Irrigated Vetiver Grass. Proceeding of The Third International Conference on Vetiver (ICV-3). Australia.

Price, G.A., Barlaz, M.A. & Hater, G.R. 2003. Nitrogen Management in Bioreactor Landfills. Waste Management, 23:675–688.

Qin, L., Liu Yu. 2006. Aerobic Granulation For Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Removal in Alternating Aerobic–Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor. J. Chemosphere 63:926–933.

Shivaraman N ; Vaidya A.N; Waghmare S.V; Paunikar W.N; Takhiwale A ; Padoley K, 2001, A Two-Stage Biological Treatment System for Ammonium-nitrate-laden Wastewater. World Journal Of Micro&biotech. 17: 447-453.

Silva A.C., Dezotti M., Sant’Anna Jr G.L..,2004. Treatment and Detoxication of A Sanitary Landfill Leachate. Chemosphere 55:207–214.

Solomon,C., Casey P., Mackne C., Lake A., 1998. Fact Sheet Evapotranspiration Systems. The National Small Flows Clearinghouse. Environmental Technology Initiative (ETI),US.

Tang, C.J., Zheng, P., Hu, B.L., Chen, J.W., Wang, C.H.2009. Influence of Substrates on Nitrogen Removal Performance and Microbiology of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation by Operating Two UASB Reactors Fed with Different Substrate Levels. J.Haz.Mat. 181:19–26.

Tengrui , L., Al-Harbawi A.F., Qiang , Zhai Jun, 2007, Comparison Between Biological Treatment and Chemical Precipitation for Nitrogen Removal from Old Landfill Leachate , merican Journal of Env. Sci. 3 (4): 183-187.

Thabet, O.B.D., Bouallaguia, H., Cayol J., Ollivier, B., Fardeaub M.L., Hamdia,M. 2009. Anaerobic Degradation of Landfill Leachate Using An Upflow Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Reactor with Microbial Sulfate Reduction. J.Haz.Mat. 167:1133–1140.

Theepharaksapan S., Chiemchaisri C., Chiemchaisri W., Yamamoto K. 2011. Removal of Pollutants and Reduction of Bio-Toxicity in A Full Scale Chemical Coagulation and Reverse Osmosis Leachate Treatment System. J.Bioresource Technology 102:5381–5388.

Thomas, D.J.L., Tyrrel, S.F., Smith, R., Farrow, S., 2009. Bioassays For The Evaluation of Landfill Leachate Toxicity. J. of Tox.& Env. Part B 12:83–105.

Wang,Z.P., Z.Zhang, Y.J Lin,N.S.Deng, T.Tao, K.Zhou., 2002a. Landfill Leachate Treatment by Coagulation-Photooxidation Process. J. Haz. mater., B95(1):153-159.

Žaltauskaitė,J., Čypaitė, A., 2008. Assessment of Landfill Leachate Toxicity Using Higher Plants. Env. Res. Eng.Man., No. 4(46):42-47.

Zart D, Stu¨ven R, Bock E.1999. Nitrification and Denitrification Microbial Fundamentals and Consequences for Application. Biotechnology, vol 11. Weinheim, NY, USA, : 56–65.

Zalesny, J.A., Zalesny Jr,R.S.,Coyle, D.R., Hall, R.B.2007. Growth and Biomass of Populus Irrigated with Landfill Leachate. Forest Eco.& Man. 248:143–152.

ZalesnyJr. R. S., Wiese, A.H., Bauer, E.O., Riemenschneider ,D.E.2009. Ex Situ Grow than Biomass of Populus Bioenergy Crops Irrigated and Fertilized with Landfill Leachate. Biomass and Bioenergy 33:62–69.

Published by Department of Chemical Engineering University of Diponegoro Semarang
Google Scholar

IJSE  by is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.