Mohamad Djaeni, Aji Prasetyaningrum, Nurul Asiah, Ratnawati Hartono

DOI: https://doi.org/10.12777/ijse.6.2.122-125


The drying is the last step to find carrageenan product. Currently, the carrageenan drying still deals with too long drying time. This because, during the process carrageenan and water forms gel stucture in which hampers the water diffusion to the surface. Foaming agent introduction such as egg white can be considered to break the gel structure and make the drying process being smooth and fast. This paper discusses the effect of egg white as foaming agent on the drying time of carrageenan. In this study, the carrageenan was mixed with egg white to form foam that can break the gel and create the pore for improving the surface area.  The carrageenan and egg white mixture was then dried at different air temperature and humidity. Results showed that the drying time was shortened with the presence of egg whiet as well as the increase of air temperature. For example, the drying time at air temperature 80oC with  20 % egg white was about 60 minutes shorter than that of without foam. In addition, the lowering air dehumidification affected the drying time positively.


carrageenan , drying time, diffusion, dehumidification

Full Text:



Chandak, A. J., and Chivate, M. R. 1972. Recent development in foammat drying. Indian Food Packer, 26(6), 26–32.

Djaeni, M., Sasongko, S.B., Prasetyaningrum A.A., Jin, X., van Boxtel A.J. (2012) Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality. International Journal of Food Engineering: Vol. 8: Issue 3, Article 32. DOI: 10.1515/1556-3758.2682

Djaeni, M., Prasetyaningrum, A., Widayat, W., Sasongko, S.B., Hii, C.L. 2013. Application of Foam-Mat Drying With Egg White for Carrageenan: Drying Rate and Product Quality Aspects. Journal of Food Science and Technology, June, DOI10.1007/s13197-013-1081-0

Falade, K. O., Adeyanju, K. I., Uzo-peters, P. I. 2003. Foam mat drying of cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) using glycerylmonostearate and egg albumin as forming agents. European Food Research and Technology, 217(6), 486–491.

Kadam, D.M., Patil, R.T., and Kaushik, P. 2010. Foam Mat Drying of Fruit and Vegetable Products, in Dryingof Foods,Vegetables and Fruits. Volume 1, Ed. Jangam, S.V., Law, C.L. and Mujumdar, A.S., 2010, ISBN - 978-981-08-6759-1, Published in Singapore, pp. 111-124.

Karim, A.A., and Wai, C.C., 1999. Foam-mat drying of starfruit (Averrhoacarambola L.) puree.Stability and air drying characteristics. Food Chemistry 64, 337–343.

Kudra, T., and Ratti, C. 2005. Drying of foamed materials: Opportunities and challenges. In proceeding 11th polish Drying symposium. CD-ROM. Poznar, Polant Sept. 13–16.

Labelle, R. L. 1984. Principles of foam mat drying. Journal of Food Technology, 20, 89–91.

McCandless, E. L., Craigie, J. S. and Walter, J. A.1973.Carrageenans in the gametophytic and sporophytic stages of Chondruscrispus, Planta, Berlin.

MCPI Corporation. 2009. Introduction to Natural Grade Carrageenan. Brochure of MCPI corporation, Philiphines. http://www.mcpicarrageenan.com (accessed February 15, 2009)

Prasetyaningrum, A., and Djaeni, M. 2012. Drying spirulina with foam mat drying at medium temperature. International Journal of Science and Engineering, vol 3 issue 2, pp 1 - 3

Prins, A.1988. Principles of foam stability. In: Dickinson, E., Stainsby,G. (Eds.), Advances in Food Emulsions and Foams. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, pp. 91–122.

Rajkumar, P., Kailappan, R., Viswanathan, R., Raghavan, G.S.V., and C. Ratti. 2005. Studies on foam-mat drying of alphonso mango pulp. In Proceedings 3rd Inter-American Drying Conference, CD ROM, paper XIII-1. Montreal, QC: Department of Bioresource Engineering, McGill University.

Ratti, C, and Kudra, T. 2006. Foam-mat drying: Energy and cost analysis. Canadian Biosystem Engineering, 48; 3.27-3.32

Sankat, C.K., and Castaigne, F., 2004. Foaming and drying behaviour of ripe bananas. Lebensmittel-Wissenshaft und-Technologie 37, 517–525.

Tari, Ö. and Ö Pekcan, 2008. Study of drying κ-carrageenan gelat temperatures using a Flourescence Technique. Drying Technology 26 (1), 101-107

Published by Department of Chemical Engineering University of Diponegoro Semarang
Google Scholar

IJSE  by http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/ijse is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.