The Nutrient Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill’s By-product Processed with Amofer Technology as Ruminant Feed

Hamdi Mayulu



By-product derived from palm oil plantation and mill is very potential for energy and protein source for ruminant feed. However, it is still underutilized due to low content of crude protein (CP) with high crude fiber (CF). Ammoniation or fermentation technology could optimize the quality of by-product by increasing digestibility, reducing CF and increasing CP content. The objective of this research was to determine the nutrient and potency value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product applied with amofer technology for ruminant feed. Sample was prepared in two methods: 1) sample without amofer application, 2) sample with amofer application under anaerobic method and incubated for 18 days. Ammoniation was carried out by adding urea of 3% from the total material and then incubated for nine days. At the ninth day, some microorganisms starter i.e. cellulolytic, amillolytic and proteolytic were added by 1% of the total material. Proximate analysis was carried out in laboratory to examine the nutrient value. The crude protein content at each part of feed material before and after amofer treatment was follow: palm midrib: 3.16%:17%; palm leaves 6.53%:26.51%; empty fruit bunch 7.01%:1673%; palm pressed fiber 5.56%:16.00%. While the crude fiber at each part of feed material was: palm midrib 37.85%:30.86%; palm leaves 30.39%:24.41%; EFB 40.22%:34.98%; PPF 50.39%: 41.70%. The application of amofer could increase the amount of feed material (ton/ha/y): dry matter (DM) 14.82:15.89; CP 0.79:2.87; total digestible nutrient (TDN) 7.63:8.5. Moreover, amofer application could also increase the nutrient content of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product by increasing CP and reducing CF. This increasing was also followed by the increasing of DM, CP, and TDN which indicated that those feed sources were recommended as ruminant feed material


By-product amofer; urea; anaerobic; nutrient; ruminant

Full Text:



Akbar, S. A. 2007. Utilization of fermented palm bunches trash combined with defaunation and rumen by pass protein on sheep performance. Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture 32 (2): 80–85.

Andayani, J. 2010. Evaluation of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein in vitro digestibilities of ammoniated corn husk in cattle ration. Journal of Livestock Sciences XIII (5): 252–259.

Azmi and Gunawan. 2005. Potency of forage plantation area for the development of beef cattle in Bengkulu. ¬In: Subandriyo, K. Diwyanto, I. Inounu, B. R. Prawiradiputra, B. Drtiadi, Nurhayati and A. Priyanti. Proceeding of the National Workshop on Animal Forage. Bogor 16 September 2005. pp. 64–67.

Agricultural Research and Development. 2005. Prospect and target of the development of cattle agribusiness. Department of Agriculture, Jakarta.

Batubara, L. P. 2003. Potential of animal production integrated with palm oil estate as an agribusiness based ruminant. Wartazoa13 (3): 83–91.

Batubara, L., S. P. Ginting, K. Simanihuruk, J. Sianipar and A. Tarigan. 2003. Utilization of palm oil waste and by-product for sheep ration. Proceeding of the National Seminar on Animal and Veterinary Technology. Centre of research and development of livestock. Bogor. pp. 106–109.

Caneque, V., S. Valasco and J. L. Sanca. 2000. Nutrional value use of ligno-cellulosic feed treated with urea in the ruminant diet. Options Mediterraneennes Serie Seminaires 16 (1991): 17–31.

Elseed, F. A. M. A. 2005. Effect of supplemental protein feeding frequency on ruminal characteristics and microbial N production in sheep fed treated rice straw. Small Ruminant Research 57: 11–17.

Galina, M. A., J. D. Hummel, M. Sánchez and G. F. W. Haenlein. 2004. Fattening Rambouillet lambs with corn stubble or alfalfa, slow intake urea supplementation or balanced concentrate. Small Ruminant Research 53: 89–98.

Ginting, S. P and J. Elisabeth. 2004. Technology of feed-based by-product of palm oil plantation. Proceeding of National Workshop. Bengkulu, September 9-10th 2003. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with Provincial Government of Bengkulu and PT. Agricinal.

Guntoro, S. 2005. Processing plantation waste for livestock feed source. Warta Prima Tani1 (1): 8–11.

Hanafi, N. D. 2004. Silage and ammoniation treatment of palm leaves as feed source for sheep. Program study of livestock production, Faculty of Agriculture, Sumatera Utara University, Digitized by USU digital library.

Hardianto, R. 2003. Complete feed formulation technology. In: G. Kartono, Suhardjo, E. Widajati and D Ernawanto (ed). Technical Guide for the Development of Agricultural Technology. Office of Agriculture Technology Application of East Java. p. 109–117.

Harfiah. 2007. Dried palm oil sludge as the nutrient source of ruminant feed. Bulletin of Nutrient and Livestock Feed 6 (2): 27–30.

Haryanto, B., N. Hidayat and M. Bata. 2001. The influence of urea and sulfur level on the nitrogen balance and energy digestibility of sheep fed by fermented dried cassava waste pulp and tofu. Animal Production 3 (2): 91–97.

Kusnadi, U. 2008. Innovation on livestock technology in plant-livestock integration system to support meat self-sufficiency. Development of Agricultural Innovation1 (3): 189–205.

Mahgoub, O., I. T. Kadim, M. H. Al-Busaidi, K. Annamalai and N. M. Al-saqri. 2007. Effects of feeding ensiled date palm fronds and a by-product concentrate on performance and meat quality of Omani sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology 135: 210–221.

Mathius, I. W. 2008. Development of beef cattle based palm oil industry. Development of Agricultural Innovation1 (3): 206–224.

Mathius, I. W., D. Sitompul, B. P. Manurung and Azmi. 2004. By-product of palm oil plantation and mill as complete feed source for cattle: a review. Proceeding of National Workshop. Department of Agriculture.

Mathius, I. W. 2003. Palm oil plantation as a basis of beef cattle development. Bulletin of Agricultural Research and Development 25 (5): 1–4.

Mayulu, H., Sunarso, C. I. Sutrisno, Sumarsono. M. Christiyanto and K. Isharyudono. 2013. Potency of palm oil plantation and mill by-product as ruminant feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan. J. of Sci. and Eng. 5 (2):56–60.

Mayulu, H., Sunarso, C. I. Sutrisno and Sumarsono. 2012. The effects of amofer palm oil waste-based complete feed to blood profiles and liver function on local sheep. Internat. J. of Sci. and Eng 3 (1):17–21.

Mayulu, H., Sunarso, C. I. Sutrisno and Sumarsono. 2010. Policy on the development of beef cattle in Indonesia. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development 29 (1): 34–41.

Musalia, L. M., S. Anandan, V. R. Sastri and D. K. Agrawal. 2000. Urea-treated neem (Azadirachtaindica A. juss) seed kernel cake as a protein supplement for lambs. Small Ruminant Research 35: 107–116.

Nirwana. 2005. Effect of fermented cocoa peel used in concentrate on body weigth gain of local sheep. J. Agrisains 6 (3): 177–183.

Oji, U. U., H. E. Etim and F. C. Okoye. 2007. Effects of urea and aqueous ammonia treatment on the composition and nutritive value of maize residues. Small Ruminant Research 69: 232–236.

Puastuti, W. 2008.Optimization of palm oil by-product as ruminant feed source. Seminar on the optimization of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product as livestock feed source. [Cited June 2nd 2012]. Available in: http:// pdf

Riady, M. 2004. Challenges and opportunity of beef cattle production towards 2020. In: Setiadi B. et al., Editor. Proceeding of National Workshop on Beef Cattle. Yogyakarta October 8–9th 2004. Center of Livestock Research and Development. Bogor. pp: 3–6.

Ribeiro, J. M. C. R. 2000. Treatment of straws. Options Mediterraneennes Serie Seminaires 16 (1991): 55–60.

Sudarmono. 2013. A success story on formulating prebiotic for fisheries, livestock and agriculture (Modern livestock series). Published by Pustaka Baru Press, Yogyakarta.

Sunarso, L.K. Nuswantara, A. Setiadi and Budiyono. 2011. The performance of beef cattle fed by complete feed. International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS 11 (01): 260–263.

Sutrisno, C. I. 2002. The role of agricultural waste in the development of ruminant (Professor Inauguration Speech at University of Dipponegoro dated February 9th 2002). Published by University of Diponegoro, Semarang.

Sutardi, T. 2001. Revitalization of dairy cattle through utilization of ration based estate by-product and organic mineral supplement. Research of RUT VIII.1. Ministry of Research and Technology together with Indonesian Institute of Science, Bogor.

Sutrisno, C. I. 2001. Integration of technology engineering and its implementation. Journal of Topical Livestock Development. Special Edition: KS 1–9.

Umiyasih, U and Y. N Anggraeni. 2003. Integrated system of animal and plantation: review of the forage availability for beef cattle in palm oil plantation area. pp. 156 – 166. [Cited June 2nd 2012]. Available in: http://

Utomo, R. 2004. A review on research results of beef cattle feed.Wartazoa 14 (3): 116–124.

Wina, E. 2005.Technology on utilizing microorganism in feed to increase ruminant productivity in Indonesia: a review. Wartazoa 15 (4): 173–186.

Published by Department of Chemical Engineering University of Diponegoro Semarang
Google Scholar

IJSE  by is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.