skip to main content

The seasonal effect on the performance of pigs reared in a backyard pig farm in Thailand: retrospective study

M. Lothong  -  Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Thailand
K. Anurud  -  Center of learning network for region, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
S. Semsirmboon  -  Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
S. Poonyachoti  -  Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
*S. Thammachareon  -  Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

This study aimed to determine the seasonal effect on the performance of pigs reared in open-barn housing in Thailand. This retrospective study was performed using two years of recorded pig perfor-mance, including average birth weight, litter size, percentage of born alive and dead piglets, weaning weight, average daily gain (ADG), percentage of weaned alive and dead piglets and meteorological data. Data were grouped based on 3 different seasons: winter, summer and the rainy season, and the differences were compared. The highest temperature–humidity index (THI) was found during summer (85.3 ± 0.2) and the THI of the rainy season was higher than that in winter (between 82.3 ± 0.2 and 77.2 ± 0.4) (p < 0.05). The piglet growth performance was affected by season (p < 0.05). The weaning weight of piglets in the rainy season was higher than that in winter but not different from that in sum-mer. The highest ADG was observed in the rainy season. In summary, growth performance of suckling pigs reared in open-barn housing in Thailand was affected by the season. The optimal climate promot-ing growth of nursery pigs was determined to be the rainy season.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Fulltext View|Download |  common.other
Author declaration
Type Other
  Download (55KB)    Indexing metadata
Keywords: Growth; Nursery pig; Open barn; production; Seasonal effect

Article Metrics:

  1. Almond, P.K. and G. Bilkei 2005. Seasonal infertility in large pig production units in an Eastern-European climate. Aust. Vet. J. 83(6): 344-346
  2. Amavizca-Nazar, A., M. Montalvo-Corral, H. Gonzalez-Rios and A. Pinelli-Saavedra 2019. Hot environment on reproductive performance, immunoglobulins, vitamin E, and vitamin A status in sows and their progeny under commercial husbandry. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 61(6): 340-351
  3. Baumgard, L.H. and R.P.J. Rhoads 2013. Effects of heat stress on postabsorptive metabolism and energetics. Annu. Rev. Anim. 1: 311-337
  4. Bellego, L.L., J. van Milgen and J. Noblet 2002. Effect of high ambient temperature on protein and lipid deposition and energy utilization in growing pigs. Anim. Sci. J. 75(1): 85-96
  5. Bertoldo, M., C.G. Grupen, P.C. Thomson, G. Evans and P.K. Holyoake 2009. Identification of sow-specific risk factors for late pregnancy loss during the seasonal infertility period in pigs. Theriogenology. 72(3): 393-400
  6. Bianca, W. 1976. The signifiance of meterology in animal production. Int. J. Biometeorol. 20(2): 139-156
  7. Bloemhof, S., E.H. van der Waaij, J.W. Merks and E.F. Knol 2008. Sow line differences in heat stress tolerance expressed in reproductive performance traits. J. Anim. Sci. 86(12): 3330-3337
  8. Bohmanova, J., I. Misztal and J.B. Cole 2007. Temperature-humidity indices as indicators of milk production losses due to heat stress. J. Dairy Sci. 90(4): 1947-1956
  9. Brügemann, K., E. Gernand, U. König von Borstel and S. König 2012
  10. Defining and evaluating heat stress thresholds in different dairy cow production systems. Arch. Anim. Breed. 55: 13-24
  11. Campos, P., N. Floc'h, J. Noblet and D. Renaudeau 2017. Physiological responses of growing pigs to high ambient temperature and/or inflammatory challenges. Rev. Bras. de Zootec. 46: 537-544
  12. D'Allaire, S., R. Drolet and D. Brodeur 1996. Sow mortality associated with high ambient temperatures. Can. Vet. J. 37(4): 237-239
  13. Hahn, G.L. 1999. Dynamic responses of cattle to thermal heat loads. J. Anim. Sci. 77 Suppl 2: 10-20
  14. Harmon, J. and H. Xin 1995. Livestock Industry Facilities and Environment: Environmental Guidelines for Confinement Swine Housing. J. Agric. Educ. 36
  15. Hawe, S.J., N. Scollan, A. Gordon and E. Magowan 2020. Impact of sow lactation feed intake on the growth and suckling behavior of low and average birthweight pigs to 10 weeks of age. Transl. Anim. Sci. 4(2): 655-665
  16. Herpin, P., M. Damon and J. Le Dividich 2002. Development of thermoregulation and neonatal survival in pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 78(1): 25-45
  17. Hojgaard, C.K., T.S. Bruun and P.K. Theil 2020. Impact of milk and nutrient intake of piglets and sow milk composition on piglet growth and body composition at weaning. J. Anim.Sci. 98(3)
  18. Kelley, K.W., F. Blecha and J.A. Regnier 1982. Cold exposure and absorption of colostral immunoglobulins by neonatal pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 55(2): 363-368
  19. Lara, L.J. and M.H. Rostagno 2013. Impact of Heat Stress on Poultry Production. Animals. 3(2): 356-369
  20. Mayorga, E.J., D. Renaudeau, B.C. Ramirez, J.W. Ross and L.H. Baumgard 2019. Heat stress adaptations in pigs. Anim. Front. 9(1): 54-61
  21. Mioč, B., P. Zvonimir, I. Vnucec, Z. Barać, V. Sušić, D. Samarzija and P. Vesna 2008. Factors affecting goat milk yield and composition. Mljekarstvo. 58: 305-313
  22. Muns, R., M. Nuntapaitoon and P. Tummaruk 2016. Non-infectious causes of pre-weaning mortality in piglets. Livest Sci. 184: 46-57
  23. Nguyen, T., S. Chanpongsang, N. Chaiyabutr and S. Thammacharoen 2020. Effects of dietary cation and anion difference on eating, ruminal function and plasma leptin in goats under tropical condition. Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci. 33(6): 941-948
  24. Pearce, S.C., N.K. Gabler, J.W. Ross, J. Escobar, J.F. Patience, R.P. Rhoads and L.H. Baumgard 2013. The effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on metabolism in growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(5): 2108-2118
  25. Perera, K.S., F.C. Gwazdauskas, R.E. Pearson and T.B. Brumback 1986. Effect of Season and Stage of Lactation on Performance of Holsteins. J. Dairy. Sci. 69(1): 228-236
  26. Raja, R., P. Sangeetha, G. Prabakar and V. Ravindra 2017. Still birth and mummification in swine-A review. Agri. Rev. 38
  27. Renaudeau, D. and J. Noblet 2001. Effects of exposure to high ambient temperature and dietary protein level on sow milk production and performance of piglets. J. Anim. Sci 79(6): 1540-1548
  28. Salem, M.B. and R. Bouraoui 2009. Heat stress in Tunisia: effects on dairy cows and potential means of alleviating it. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 39: 256-259
  29. Singh, V., M. Dubey and A. Chaubey 2015. Seasonal Influence on Milk Production Performance in Different Breeds of Dairy Cows. Journal of Environment and Ecology. 33: 371-374
  30. Suriyasomboon, A., N. Lundeheim, A. Kunavongkrit and S. Einarsson 2006. Effect of temperature and humidity on reproductive performance of crossbred sows in Thailand. Theriogenology. 65(3): 606-628
  31. Thammacharoen, S., S. Chanpongsang, N. Chaiyabutr, S. Teedee, A. Pornprapai, A. Insam-ang, C. Srisa-ard and N. Channacoop 2020. An analysis of a herd-based lactation curve reveals the seasonal effect from dairy cows fed under high ambient temperatures. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 50(2): 169-178
  32. Thammacharoen, S., T. Nguyen, W. Suthikai, W. Chanchai, S. Chanpongsang and N. Chaiyabutr 2014. Somatotropin supplementation decreases feed intake in crossbred dairy goats during the early phase of lactation. Small Ruminant Research. 121(2): 368-375
  33. Tsartsianidou, V., V.V. Kapsona, E. Sánchez-Molano, Z. Basdagianni, M.J. Carabaño, D. Chatziplis, G. Arsenos, A. Triantafyllidis and G. Banos 2021
  34. Understanding the seasonality of performance resilience to climate volatility in Mediterranean dairy sheep. Scientific Reports. 11(1): 1889
  35. Tummaruk, P., W. Tantasuparuk, M. Techakumphu and A. Kunavongkrit 2010. Seasonal influences on the litter size at birth of pigs are more pronounced in the gilt than sow litters. Journal of Agricultural Science. 148(4): 421-432
  36. Vanderhaeghe, C., J. Dewulf, A. de Kruif and D. Maes 2013. Non-infectious factors associated with stillbirth in pigs: a review. Animal Reproduction Science. 139(1-4): 76-88
  37. Vanderhaeghe, C., J. Dewulf, S. Ribbens, A. de Kruif and D. Maes 2010. A cross-sectional study to collect risk factors associated with stillbirths in pig herds. Animal Reproduction Science. 118(1): 62-68
  38. Vitali, A., M. Segnalini, L. Bertocchi, U. Bernabucci, A. Nardone and N. Lacetera 2009. Seasonal pattern of mortality and relationships between mortality and temperature-humidity index in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 92(8): 3781-3790
  39. Wegner, K., C. Lambertz, G. Das, G. Reiner and M. Gauly 2014. Climatic effects on sow fertility and piglet survival under influence of a moderate climate. Animal. 8(9): 1526-1533
  40. White, C.E., H.H. Head, K.C. Bachman and F.W. Bazer 1984. Yield and composition of milk and weight gain of nursing pigs from sows fed diets containing fructose or dextrose. Jounal of Animal Science. 59(1): 141-150

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-04-24 02:52:32

No citation recorded.