Ekstrak Phyllanthus niruri Linn, Pertumbuhan Tumor dan Proliferasi Sel Kanker Kolorektal: Studi Eksperimental pada Tikus Sprague-Dawley yang Diinduksi 1,2 DMH

Endang Sawitri, Ign. Riwanto, Tjahjono Tjahjono, Edi Dharmana


Abstract


Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn extract on tumor growth and cell proliferation of colorectal cancer: experimental study in 1.2 DMH-induced Sprague-Dawley rats

Background: The development of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) is so very advanced, however, the survival of patients has not been satisfactory, therefore, the current therapy also involve immunotherapy. Phyllanthus niruri Linn (P. niruri L) may act as an immunomodulator and anticancer, but its potency has not been revealed. Study was conducted to confirm the effects of P. niruri L extract in the treatment of CRC.

Method: The study was randomized posttest-only control group design. Samples were Sprague-Dawley male rats, bodyweight 170- 220 gr, were divided into two groups: non induced or negative control (K-) consisted of 9 normal rats, and induced by 1.2 DMH 30 mg/kgBW subcutaneously group consisted 30 rats. On the weeks 9, 11 and 13, four induced rats each week were sacrified to detect the development of CRC. On the weeks of 13th all of 4 rats were developed CRC, so the induction were stopped. The rest of 18 induced rats were randomly into two groups: without P. niruri L or positive control (K+)=9 rats and given P. niruri L extract 13.5 mg/kg orally or X group=9 rats. After 19th week all of rats were then terminated and tumor lesion of colon were examined macroscopically and hystophatologic tissues were stained with AgNORs for evaluate the cells proliferation. Oneway Anova and Post Hoc LSD test for the growth of colon tumor and non pairs t-test for cell proliferation were used. Considered significant if p was <0.05. Result: There was no tumor growth on K- group, while for K+ was 83.33±14.34% and on X was 40.44±13.23% (p=0.000). The mean of AgNORs on K+ was 4.60±0.55 while on X was 2.25±0.39 (p=0.000).

Conclusion: The extract of P. niruri L suppress the tumor growth and cell proliferation of CRC.

Keywords: Phyllanthus niruri Linn, colorectal cancer, tumor growth, proliferation


ABSTRAK

Latar belakang: Perkembangan kemoterapi untuk kanker kolorektal (KKR) sangat maju, tetapi kelangsungan hidup penderitanya belum memuaskan, sehingga penanganan multimodalitas juga melibatkan imunoterapi yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup. Phyllanthus niruri Linn dapat bekerja sebagai imunomodulator sekaligus antikanker, tetapi potensinya belum banyak diungkap. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh pemberian ekstrak P. niruri L terhadap pertumbuhan tumor dan
proliferasi sel KKR.

Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan randomized posttest-only control group design. Sampel berupa tikus Sprague-Dawley jantan, dibagi 2: kelompok tanpa induksi 1,2 DMH dan tanpa P. niruri L (K-: kelompok kontrol negatif) sebanyak 9 ekor dan kelompok induksi 1,2 DMH 30 mg/kgBB subkutan setiap minggu sebanyak 30 ekor. Pada minggu ke-9, 11 dan 13 masing-masing empat ekor tikus dibunuh untuk melihat perkembangan tumor. Pada minggu ke-13 keempat tikus telah berkembang menjadi KKR, induksi
dihentikan dan sisa 18 tikus dirandom alokasi menjadi 2 kelompok. Kelompok kontrol positif (K+) tanpa pemberian P. niruri L (9 tikus) dan kelompok diberi P. niruri L. 13.5 mg/kg per hari melalui sonde (9 tikus). Minggu ke-19 semua tikus diterminasi, diperiksa lesi tumor makroskopik pada kolon. Jaringan histopatologik diwarnai AgNORs untuk memeriksa proliferasi sel. Analisis data meliputi analisis deskriptif dan uji Oneway Anova, dilanjutkan dengan post hoc test LSD untuk pertumbuhan tumor kolon dan uji t
tidak berpasangan untuk proliferasi sel. Derajat signifikansi yang dipilih adalah p<0,05.

Hasil: Tidak ditemukan pertumbuhan tumor pada kelompok K-. Persentase rerata pertumbuhan tumor kelompok X sebesar
40,44±13,23%berbeda sangat signifikan (p=0,000) dibanding K+ sebesar 33±14,34%. Rerata bercak AgNORs kelompok K+
sebesar 4,60±0,55 dan menurun pada kelompok X (2,25±0,39), terdapat perbedaan yang sangat signifikan pada kedua kelompok (p=0,000).

Simpulan: Ekstrak P. niruri L menekan pertumbuhan tumor dan proliferasi sel kanker kolorektal.


Keywords


Phyllanthus niruri Linn, colorectal cancer, tumor growth, proliferation

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