Pengembangan Sistem Kewaspadaan Dini Malaria Berbasis Sistem Informasi Lingkungan (EIS-EWSM) Bagi Pengambilan Kebijakan di Daerah Endemis Pedesaan Pulau Ambon

Salakory Melianus


Abstract


Development of malaria early warning system based environmental information systems (EIS-EWSM) to policy making in endemic areas of rural Ambon Island

Background: The study on the incidence of malaria by using environment risk approach that emphasizes the linkage relationship between the host (host), agent (agent), and the environment (environment) need to be used more widely in public health in controlling the prevalence, incidence and distribution in an effort to prevent an increase in malaria cases/outbreaks of malaria. Were assessing the environmental parameters that can be used in the preparation of the environmental information system for decision
making in malaria endemic areas of Ambon Island, developed a model (prototype) environmental information system test the model (prototype), develop The EWSM, based on existing environmental information.

Method: The design of this study was retrospective and prospective study design with time series observational approach; since March-November 2009 (for 9 whole months: dry season, early rain, the peak rainy, early dry/transition).

Result: The results of a retrospective study, determined two potential areas of endemic malaria on the island of Ambon, namely: the village of Passo Baguala district city of Ambon, and the village of Hila-Kaitetu Leihitu district of district Central Molluca. Significant environmental risk factors included as model parameters are: density of larvae, ways of handling waste, drainage conditions, the proportion of forest, swamp proportion, the proportion of water bodies, the state of salinity, pH conditions, wind conditions, the state of precipitation, air humidity conditions, the state of air temperature, and density of the vector (Anopheles mosquito).

Conclusions: Prepared by GIS, and maps of malaria distribution and map of priority malaria endemic in the village of Passo and Hila village. The EIS-EWSM, is a software that gives early warning outbreaks of malaria on the basis of environmental information. The program is also equipped with installation guide, and guide the application operates.
Keywords: Development, malaria early warning system, based environmental information systems (EIS-EWSM), endemic areas, Rural Ambon Island

 

ABSTRAK

Pendahuluan: Kajian terhadap kejadian malaria dengan menggunakan pendekatan lingkungan risiko yang menitikberatkan pada keterkaitan hubungan antara inang (host), agen (agent), dan lingkungan (environment) perlu digunakan secara lebih luas pada kesehatan masyarakat dalam melakukan pengontrolan terhadap prevalensi, insidensi dan distribusinya sebagai upaya untuk mencegah terjadinya peningkatan kasus Malaria/KLB Malaria. Tujuan khusus yang ingin dicapai dalam penelitian ini sebagai berikut adalah mengkaji parameter lingkungan yang dapat digunakan dalam penyusunan Sistem Informasi Lingkungan Malaria bagi pengambilan kebijakan di daerah Endemis Pulau Ambon, mengembangkan model (prototype) sistem informasinya, melakukan uji coba model (prototype) sistem informasi tersebut, kemudian mengembangkan EWSM.

Metode: Rancangan penelitian ini adalah rancangan penelitian retrospektif dan diteruskan secara prospektif dengan pendekatan Time Series observational sejak Maret-  Nopember 2009 (musim kemarau, awal hujan, puncak hujan, awal kemarau/pancaroba).Hasil: Hasil studi retrospektif dipakai untuk menentukan dua daerah potensi endemis malaria di pulau Ambon yaitu desa Passo (wilayah Puskesmas Passo) kecamatan Baguala Kota Ambon, dan desa Hila-Kaitetu (wilayah Puskesmas Hila) Kecamatan Leihitu Kabupaten Maluku Tengah. Hasil studi secara prospektif, ditemukan faktor lingkungan risiko yang signifikan dimasukkan sebagai parameter model adalah kepadatan jentik, cara penanganan sampah (konteiner), keadaan drainase, proporsi hutan, proporsi rawa, proporsi tubuh air, keadaan salinitas, keadaan pH, keadaan angin, keadaan curah hujan, keadaan kelembaban udara, keadaan suhu udara, dan kepadatan vektor (nyamuk anopheles).

Simpulan: Olahan dengan SIG, menghasilkan peta distribusi malaria serta peta prioritas endemis malaria di desa Passo dan di desa Hila. EIS-EWSM, merupakan software yang
memberikan peringatan dini terjadinya KLB malaria dengan basis informasi lingkungan. Program tersebut dilengkapi pula dengan panduan penginstalan, dan panduan  mengoperasikan aplikasi.


Keywords


Development, malaria early warning system, based environmental information systems (EIS-EWSM), endemic areas, Rural Ambon Island

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