skip to main content

Assessment of Shoreline Change Along the Sandy Beach of Ellembelle District of Ghana

*Cynthia Borkai Boye orcid  -  The University of Mines and Technology (UMaT), Tarkwa-Ghana, Ghana
Peter Ekow Baffoe  -  , Ghana

Citation Format:

Sandy beaches are most popular tourists and fish landing sites, and serve as habitat for several endangered species. However, sandy beaches more vulnerable to coastal erosion, particularly those along open oceans. Assessment of shoreline change using reliable dataset aid in understanding the morphology of coastal landforms, the processes associated with their occurrence and support decision making. This paper analysed available multi-temporal spatial dataset and field observations using GNSS techniques to assess the shoreline change along the study area. The shoreline features were extracted from 1974 topographic map and 2005 orthophotographs using the High Water Line (HWL) in conjunction with 2020 spatial data. Shoreline change statistics were computed using DSAS. A geodatabase was created, transects were cast and the shoreline change rates computed using EPR, LRR and WLR methods. Both accretion and erosion were recorded with mean erosion rate of 0.97 m/year. It was observed that sections of the shoreline nourished by Ankobra and Amunzuri rivers were experiencing some accretion, particularly the mouth of the Amuzuri river.  The estuary of Amunzuri river was found to be drifting eastwards at a rate of 5.4m/year possibly due to tides, waves and currents.  The study concludes that in spite of the littoral drift eastwards, fluvial sediment supplied by coastal rivers accounts for the relative stability of shoreline in the area. Policy formulation regarding possible damming of coastal rivers by government under the ‘one district one dam’ agenda must be carefully considered to avert high levels of erosion along the western coast of Ghana.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Sandy beaches, Ellembelle, shoreline change, erosion and accretion

Article Metrics:

  1. Addae, B., & Oppelt, N. (2019). Land-use/land-cover change analysis and urban growth modelling in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA), Ghana. Urban Science, 3(1), 26.

  2. Addo, K. A. (2013). Assessing Coastal Vulnerability Index to Climate Change: the Case of Accra {textendash} Ghana. Journal of Coastal Research, 165, 1892–1897. [">Crossref]

  3. Addo, K. A., Larbi, L., Amisigo, B., & Ofori-Danson, P. K. (2011). Impacts of coastal inundation due to climate change in a cluster of urban coastal communities in Ghana, West Africa. Remote Sensing, 3(9), 2029–2050.

  4. Addo, K. A., Walkden, M., & Mills, J. P. (2008). Detection, measurement and prediction of shoreline recession in Accra, Ghana. {ISPRS} Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 63(5), 543–558. [">Crossref]

  5. Ahn, Y., Shin, B., & Kim, K.-H. (2017). Shoreline Change Monitoring using High Resolution Digital Photogrammetric Technique. Journal of Coastal Research, 79, 204–208. [">Crossref]

  6. Anthony, E. J., Besset, M., Dussouillez, P., Goichot, M., & Loisel, H. (2019). Overview of the Monsoon-influenced Ayeyarwady River delta, and delta shoreline mobility in response to changing fluvial sediment supply. Marine Geology, 417, 106038. [">Crossref]

  7. Armah, F. A. (2011). {GIS}-based Assessment of Short Term Shoreline Changes in the Coastal Erosion-Sensitive Zone of Accra, Ghana. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5(7), 643–654. []

  8. Asante, F., & Amuakwa-Mensah, F. (2014). Climate Change and Variability in Ghana: Stocktaking. Climate, 3(1), 78–99. [">Crossref]

  9. Beetham, E. P., & Kench, P. S. (2014). Wave energy gradients and shoreline change on Vabbinfaru platform, Maldives. Geomorphology, 209, 98–110. [">Crossref]

  10. Besset, M., Anthony, E. J., & Bouchette, F. (2019). Multi-decadal variations in delta shorelines and their relationship to river sediment supply: An assessment and review. Earth-Science Reviews, 193, 199–219. [">Crossref]

  11. Boak, E. H., & Turner, I. L. (2005). Shoreline Definition and Detection: A Review. Journal of Coastal Research, 214, 688–703. [">Crossref]

  12. Boateng, I. (2006). Shoreline management planning can it benefit Ghana? A case study of UK SMPs and their potential relevance in Ghana. International Federation of Surveyors 5th FIG Regional Conference-Promoting Land Administration and Good Governance.

  13. Boateng, I. (2009). Sediment budget analysis and integrated shoreline management planning: an application to Ghana’s coast. University of Portsmouth.

  14. Boateng, I. (2012). An application of {GIS} and coastal geomorphology for large scale assessment of coastal erosion and management: a case study of Ghana. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 16(3), 383–397. [">Crossref]

  15. Boateng, I., Wiafe, G., & Jayson-Quashigah, P.-N. (2017). Mapping vulnerability and risk of Ghana’s coastline to sea level rise. Marine Geodesy, 40(1), 23–39.

  16. Boye, B. C., Boateng, I., Addo, K. A., & Wiafe, G. (2019). An assessment of the contribution of fluvial sediment discharge to coastal stability: A case study of Western Region of Ghana. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 13(5), 191–200.

  17. Boye, C. B. (2015). Causes and Trends in Shoreline Change in the Western Region of Ghana. University of Ghana.

  18. Boye, C. B., Addo, K. A., Wiafe, G., & Dzigbodi-Adjimah, K. (2018). Spatio-temporal analyses of shoreline change in the Western Region of Ghana. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 22(4), 769–776. [">Crossref]

  19. Carter, A. J., Marshall, H. H., Heinsohn, R., & Cowlishaw, G. (2012). How not to measure boldness: novel object and antipredator responses are not the same in wild baboons. Animal Behaviour, 84(3), 603–609.

  20. Chakraborty, S. K. (2017). Ecological Services of Intertidal Benthic Fauna and the Sustenance of Coastal Wetlands Along the Midnapore (East) Coast, West Bengal, India. In Coastal Wetlands: Alteration and Remediation (pp. 777–866). Springer International Publishing. [">Crossref]

  21. Cooper, J. A. G., & Navas, F. (2004). Natural bathymetric change as a control on century-scale shoreline behavior. Geology, 32(6), 513. [">Crossref]

  22. Dadson, I. Y., Owusu, A. B., & Adams, O. (2016). Analysis of shoreline change along Cape Coast-Sekondi coast, Ghana. Geography Journal, 2016.

  23. Dean, R. G., & Dalrymple, R. A. (2004). Coastal processes with engineering applications. Cambridge University Press.

  24. Del Rio, L., Gracia, F. J., & Benavente, J. (2013). Shoreline change patterns in sandy coasts. A case study in SW Spain. Geomorphology, 196, 252–266.

  25. Dolan, R., Fenster, M. S., & Holme, S. J. (1991). Temporal analysis of shoreline recession and accretion. Journal of Coastal Research, 723–744.

  26. Dolan, R., Hayden, B., & Lins, H. (1980). Barrier Islands: The natural processes responsible for the evolution of barrier islands and for much of their recreational and aesthetic appeal also make them hazardous places for humans to live. American Scientist, 68(1), 16–25.

  27. Duvat, V. K. E., & Pillet, V. (2017). Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia. Geomorphology, 282, 96–118. [">Crossref]

  28. East, K. A., Tompkins, C. N. E., McNeill, A., & Hitchman, S. C. (2021). ‘I perceive it to be less harmful, I have no idea if it is or not:’a qualitative exploration of the harm perceptions of IQOS among adult users. Harm Reduction Journal, 18(1), 1–12.

  29. Esteves, L. S., Toldo, J. E. E., Dillenburg, S. R., & Tomazelli, L. J. (2002). Long-and short-term coastal erosion in Southern Brazil. Journal of Coastal Research, 36 (10036), 273–282.

  30. Eurosion. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: Sediment and Space for Sustainability. Major findings and Policy Recommendations of the EUROSION project.

  31. Fenster, M. S., Dolan, R., & Elder, J. F. (1993). A new method for predicting shoreline positions from historical data. Journal of Coastal Research, 147–171.

  32. Fester, G. (1993). Towards a women’s movement. Journal of Literary Studies, 9(1), 36–49.

  33. Fish, M. R., Côté, I. M., Horrocks, J. A., Mulligan, B., Watkinson, A. R., & Jones, A. P. (2008). Construction setback regulations and sea-level rise: Mitigating sea turtle nesting beach loss. Ocean {&}amp$mathsemicolon$ Coastal Management, 51(4), 330–341. [">Crossref]

  34. Frazer, L. N., Genz, A. S., & Fletcher, C. H. (2009). Toward Parsimony in Shoreline Change Prediction (I): Basis Function Methods. Journal of Coastal Research, 252, 366–379. [">Crossref]

  35. Frick-Trzebitzky, F., & Bruns, A. (2019). Disparities in the implementation gap: adaptation to flood risk in the Densu Delta, Accra, Ghana. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 21(5), 577–592.

  36. Galgano, F. A., & Douglas, B. C. (2000). Shoreline Position Prediction: Methods and Errors. Environmental Geosciences, 7(1), 23–31. [">Crossref]

  37. Gibbs, A. E. (2020). Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 5.0 transects with bluff rate change calculations for the north coast of Barter Island Alaska, 1950 to 2020.

  38. Giese, K., & Thiel, A. (2014). The vulnerable other--distorted equity in Chinese--Ghanaian employment relations. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(6), 1101–1120.

  39. Gornitz, V., Couch, S., & Hartig, E. K. (2001). Impacts of sea level rise in the New York City metropolitan area. Global and Planetary Change, 32(1), 61–88. [">Crossref]

  40. Griggs, G., Davar, L., & Reguero, B. G. (2019). Documenting a century of coastline change along Central California and associated challenges: From the qualitative to the quantitative. Water, 11(12), 2648.

  41. Gutierrez, B. T., Plant, N. G., & Thieler, E. R. (2011). A Bayesian network to predict coastal vulnerability to sea level rise. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 116(F2). [">Crossref]

  42. Gutierrez, B. T., Williams, S. J., & Thieler, E. R. (2007). Potential for shoreline changes due to sea-level rise along the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. {US} Geological Survey. [">Crossref]

  43. Hanley, M. E., Hoggart, S. P. G., Simmonds, D. J., Bichot, A., Colangelo, M. A., Bozzeda, F., Heurtefeux, H., Ondiviela, B., Ostrowski, R., Recio, M., Trude, R., Zawadzka-Kahlau, E., & Thompson, R. C. (2014). Shifting sands? Coastal protection by sand banks, beaches and dunes. Coastal Engineering, 87, 136–146. [">Crossref]

  44. Hapke, C. J., Reid, D., & Richmond, B. (2009). Rates and Trends of Coastal Change in California and the Regional Behavior of the Beach and Cliff System. Journal of Coastal Research, 253, 603–615. [">Crossref]

  45. Hilson, G., Sauerwein, T., & Owen, J. (2020). Large and artisanal scale mine development: The case for autonomous co-existence. World Development, 130, 104919. [">Crossref]

  46. Jacobs, C. T., Avdis, A., Mouradian, S. L., & Piggott, M. D. (2015). Integrating research data management into geographical information systems. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:1509.04729.

  47. Johnson, J. M., Moore, L. J., Ells, K., Murray, A. B., Adams, P. N., MacKenzie III, R. A., & Jaeger, J. M. (2015). Recent shifts in coastline change and shoreline stabilization linked to storm climate change. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 40(5), 569–585.

  48. Johnsson, M. J. (2005, March). Establishing Development Setbacks from Coastal Bluffs. California and the World Ocean {textquotesingle}02. [">Crossref]

  49. Jonah, F. E., Boateng, I., Osman, A., Shimba, M. J., Mensah, E. A., Adu-Boahen, K., Chuku, E. O., & Effah, E. (2016). Shoreline change analysis using end point rate and net shoreline movement statistics: An application to Elmina, Cape Coast and Moree section of Ghana’s coast. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 7, 19–31. [">Crossref]

  50. Kesse, G. O. (1985). The mineral and rock resources of Ghana.

  51. Kinsela, M., Morris, B., Linklater, M., & Hanslow, D. (2017). Second-Pass Assessment of Potential Exposure to Shoreline Change in New South Wales, Australia, Using a Sediment Compartments Framework. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 5(4), 61. [">Crossref]

  52. Lazarus, E., Ashton, A., Murray, A. B., Tebbens, S., & Burroughs, S. (2011). Cumulative versus transient shoreline change: Dependencies on temporal and spatial scale. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 116(F2). [">Crossref]

  53. Limber, P. W., Adams, P. N., & Murray, A. B. (2017). Modeling large-scale shoreline change caused by complex bathymetry in low-angle wave climates. Marine Geology, 383, 55–64.

  54. Ly, C. K. (1980). The role of the Akosombo Dam on the Volta river in causing coastal erosion in central and eastern Ghana (West Africa). Marine Geology, 37(3–4), 323–332. [">Crossref]

  55. McLean, R., & Kench, P. (2015). Destruction or persistence of coral atoll islands in the face of 20th and 21st century sea-level rise? Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 6(5), 445–463.

  56. Meidiana, N. P. C. A. T., & Marhaeni, A. A. I. N. (2019). Pengaruh Kepemilikan Aset, Ketersediaan Infrastruktur, Dan Pendidikan Terhadap Pendapatan Dan Kesejahteraan Rumah Tangga Miskin. Buletin Studi Ekonomi, 24(1), 54–69. [">Crossref]

  57. Milliman, J. D., & Farnsworth, K. L. (2013). River discharge to the coastal ocean: a global synthesis. Cambridge University Press.

  58. Milliman, J. D., & Syvitski, J. P. M. (1992). Geomorphic/tectonic control of sediment discharge to the ocean: the importance of small mountainous rivers. The Journal of Geology, 100(5), 525–544.

  59. Mullick, M., Akter, R., Islam, K. M., & Tanim, A. H. (2020). Shoreline change assessment using geospatial tools: a study on the Ganges deltaic coast of Bangladesh. Earth Science Informatics, 13(2), 299–316.

  60. Naeem, G. (2020). Dealing with Local Tsunami on Pakistan Coast. In Tsunami. IntechOpen.

  61. Nassar, K., Fath, H., Mahmod, W. E., Masria, A., Nadaoka, K., & Negm, A. (2018). Automatic detection of shoreline change: case of North Sinai coast, Egypt. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 22(6), 1057–1083.

  62. Nassar, K., Mahmod, W. E., Fath, H., Masria, A., Nadaoka, K., & Negm, A. (2019). Shoreline change detection using DSAS technique: Case of North Sinai coast, Egypt. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 37(1), 81–95.

  63. Nicholls, R. J., Wong, P. P., Burkett, V., Codignotto, J., Hay, J., McLean, R., Ragoonaden, S., Woodroffe, C. D., Abuodha, P. A. O., Arblaster, J., & others. (2007). Coastal systems and low-lying areas.

  64. Olsen, S., Tobey, J., & Kerr, M. (1997). A common framework for learning from ICM experience. Ocean and Coastal Management, 37(2), 155–174.

  65. Oteng-Ababio, M., & Owusu, K. (2011). The vulnerable state of the Ghana coast: The case of Faana-Bortianor. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 3(2), 429–442.

  66. Oyedotun, T. D. T., Ruiz-Luna, A., & Navarro-Hernández, A. G. (2018). Contemporary shoreline changes and consequences at a tropical coastal domain. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes, 2(2), 104–114.

  67. Passeri, D. L., Hagen, S. C., Medeiros, S. C., Bilskie, M. V, Alizad, K., & Wang, D. (2015). The dynamic effects of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes: A review. Earth’s Future, 3(6), 159–181.

  68. Pramanik, M. K., Biswas, S. S., Mondal, B., & Pal, R. (2016). Coastal vulnerability assessment of the predicted sea level rise in the coastal zone of Krishna--Godavari delta region, Andhra Pradesh, east coast of India. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 18(6), 1635–1655.

  69. Prasad, D. H., & Kumar, N. D. (2014). Coastal erosion studies—a review. International Journal of Geosciences, 2014.

  70. Robinet, A., Castelle, B., Idier, D., Le Cozannet, G., Déqué, M., & Charles, E. (2016). Statistical modeling of interannual shoreline change driven by North Atlantic climate variability spanning 2000--2014 in the Bay of Biscay. Geo-Marine Letters, 36(6), 479–490.

  71. Romine, B. M., Fletcher, C. H., Barbee, M. M., Anderson, T. R., & Frazer, L. N. (2013). Are beach erosion rates and sea-level rise related in Hawaii? Global and Planetary Change, 108, 149–157.

  72. Ruggiero, P., List, J., Hanes, D., & Eshleman, J. (2007). Probabilistic shoreline change modeling. In Coastal Engineering 2006: (In 5 Volumes) (pp. 3417–3429). World Scientific.

  73. Sagoe-Addy, K., & Addo, K. A. (2013). Effect of predicted sea level rise on tourism facilities along Ghana’s Accra coast. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 17(1), 155–166.

  74. Salm, R. V, Salm, R. V, Clark, J. R., & Siirila, E. (2000). Marine and coastal protected areas: a guide for planners and managers. IUCN.

  75. Sheik, M., & others. (2011). A shoreline change analysis along the coast between Kanyakumari and Tuticorin, India, using digital shoreline analysis system. Geo-Spatial Information Science, 14(4), 282–293.

  76. Slott, J. M., Murray, A. B., & Ashton, A. D. (2010). Large-scale responses of complex-shaped coastlines to local shoreline stabilization and climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 115(F3).

  77. Slott, J. M., Murray, A. B., Ashton, A. D., & Crowley, T. J. (2006). Coastline responses to changing storm patterns. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(18).

  78. Wellens-Mensah, J., Armah, A. K., Amlalo, D. S., & Tetteh, K. (2002). Development and protection of the coastal and marine environment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Ghana. National Report Phase, 1.

  79. Wiafe, G., Boateng, I., & Addo, K. A. (2013). Handbook of Coastal Processes and Management in Ghana. The Choir Press in conjunction with Coastal Processes Research Group.

  80. Woodroffe, C. D., & Murray-Wallace, C. V. (2012). Sea-level rise and coastal change: the past as a guide to the future. Quaternary Science Reviews, 54, 4–11.

  81. Woodruff, J. D., Irish, J. L., & Camargo, S. J. (2013). Coastal flooding by tropical cyclones and sea-level rise. Nature, 504(7478), 44–52.

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.