Analysis of Causality Relationship of Components of Socio-ecological and Socio-economical System for Management of the Outermost Small Islands: A Case of Lingayan Island, Central Sulawesi

Mohammad Saleh Lubis, Azis Nur Bambang, Sahala Hutabarat, Slamet Budi Prayitno



Indonesia has more than 17,506 islands and 92 islands of them are outermost small islands.  Lingayan is one of them located in Northwest of Sulawesi Island and it has geostrategic role to determine the sea boundaries of Indonesian State (NKRI) including the territorial seas, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf.  Recently, the coastal ecosystems of Lingayan has degraded and the island’s economy is weak so they cannot support the life’s survival of inhabiting people. This condition could weaken the geostrategic role in accordance with article 121 Chapter VIII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Based on the above reasons, the study aim to examine and assess the causal relation of components in the socio-ecological and socio-economical systems as a basis for management of the Lingayan Island with target on conservation of coastal ecosystems and growth of inhabitant’ business economic.  Causalities relations within components were built using Statistic Equation Model (SEM) with AMOS method and 40 constructed indicators as well as determinate the suitability program using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).  The research showed that there is relationship between the components of socio-ecological systems as indicated by the fit model of causal relation path diagram that provides chi square value = 236.994, RMSEA = 0.083, GFI = 0.884.  Furthermore, there is relationship between the components of socio-economical that provides chi square value = 192.824, RMSEA = 0.081, GFI = 0.900. The most appropriate programs are seaweed cultivation (34.0%) and restoration (23.4%).


Lingayan Island; socio-ecological system; socio-economical system

Full Text:



(1) Badrango, F.D. (2007). Integrating Local Perceptions for Enhancing Sosial-Ecological Resilience: The Case of Small Scale Fishery in the Chwaka Bay of Zanzibar. Master’s Thesis. Stockholm University.

(2) Carpenter, S., Brock, W., and Hanson, P. (1999). Ecological and Social Dynamics in Simple Models of Ecosystem Management. Ecology and society. University of Wisconsin. Madison. USA. Conservation Ecology Journal 3(2): 4-10; http:// iss2/art4/

(3) Crona, B. (2006). Of Mangroves and Middlemen, A study of social and ecological linkages in a coastal community. Summary of Doctoral Thesis, Stockholm University.

(4) Damsar (2002). Sociology Economic. Revision Ed. Rajawali Press. Jakarta. ISBN: 9791486786, pp: 18.

(5) Fauzi, A., (2004). Economic of Natural and Environmental Resources. Theory and Applications. 1st Ed. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta. ISBN: 9792210423, pp: 259.

(6) Ghozali, I., (2011). Equation Structural Model, Application Concept with Program Amos 19.0. 4th Ed. Publisher Biro of Diponegoro University. Semarang. ISBN: 9797042332, pp: 363.

(7) Fitzgerald, J.M. and A.F. Fitzgerald, (1987). Fundamental of System Analysis: Using Structured Analysis and Design Techniques. 3th Ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York. ISBN-13: 9780471885979, pp: 928.

(8) Folke, C., Hahn, T., Olsson, P., and Norberg, J., (2005). Adaptive Governance of Sosial-Ecological Systems. Annual Reviews. Environment Resource. (30) : 441-73; doi: 10.1146/

(9) Folke, (2006). Resilience: The Emergence Of A Perspective For Sosial–Ecological Systems Analyses. International Journal. Global Environmental Change 16 (2006): 253-267;

(10) Halliday, A., and Glaser, M., (2011). A Management Perspective on Social Ecological Systems: A generic system model and its application to a case study from Peru. Society for Human Ecology. Human Ecology Review 18 (1): 1 – 18; http://www.humanecologyreview. org/pastissues/her181/halliday.pdf.

(11) Peloquin, C. (2007). Variability, Change and Continuity in Social-Ecological Systems: Insight from James Bay Cree Cultural Ecology. Master’s Thesis. Faculty of Graduate Studies of the University of Manitoba.

(12) Saaty, T.L. (1990). How to Make a Decision: The Analytic Hierarchy Process. European Journal of Operational Research (48): 9-26; ProjectDocuments/06F167EF-B243-48ED8C45-F7466B3136EB%5CwebPublishings%5 Chow%20to%20make% 20decision% 20AHP.pdf.

(13) Scheffer, M., Brock, W., and Westley, F. (2000). Socioeconomic Mechanisms Preventing Optimum Use of Ecosystem Services: An Interdisciplinary Theoretical Analysis. Socioeconomics and Ecosystem Services Journal (3) : 451-471. https://sustainability.

(14) Seixas, C.S. (2002). Social-Ecological Dynamics in Management Systems: Investigating a Coastal Lagoon Fishery in Southern Brazil. Dissertation. Natural Resources Institute. University of Manitoba.

(15) United Nations, (1982). United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea-UNCLOS. The Regime of Islands. UNCLOS-TOC.htm. (Accesed on April 13, 2011).

Published by Department of Chemical Engineering University of Diponegoro Semarang
Google Scholar

IJSE  by is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.