skip to main content

Supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid in feed with different levels of protein on intestinal histomorphology, serum biochemistry, and meat quality of broiler

D. Rahmawati  -  Department of Animal Nutrition Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
*C. Hanim orcid  -  Department of Animal Nutrition Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
This study aimed to investigate the effect of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) with different protein levels in feed on intestinal histomorphology, serum biochemistry, and meat quality of broiler chicken. GAA is the only direct precursor of creatine and is involved in the synthesis of bioenergy cellular. This research used 1.176 day-old chicks of the Lohmann Indian River strain that were reared for 35 days. The supplementation effect was investigated using six treatments, i.e., two levels of feed protein and three levels of GAA, with seven replications. Broiler chickens were fed with 23% and 21% crude pro-tein during the pre-starter phase, 21% and 19% during the starter phase, and 19% and 17% during the finisher phase, with a GAA addition of 0 g/ton, 600 g/ton, and 1200 g/ton, respectively. The result showed GAA supplementation with different protein levels reduced triglyceride (P<0,05), cholesterol levels in serum (P<0,05), increased surface area of the microvilli (P<0,05), pH of breast meat (P<0,05), but did not affect the chemical quality of breast meat (P>0,05). In conclusion, GAA supplementation in different level protein diets increased the surface area of the microvilli, pH of breast meat, reduce se-rum cholesterol and triglycerides, without affecting the chemical quality of broiler meat.
Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: broiler; GAA; intestinal histomorphology; meat quality
Funding: Universitas Gadjah MadaIRekognisi Tugas Akhir (RTA) Program 2022

Article Metrics:

  1. Aberle, E. D., J. C. Forest, D. E., Gerrard, and E. W. Mills. 2001. Principles of meat science. 4th Ed. Kendall Hunt Pub Co., IA. ISBN: 0787247200
  2. Abudabos, A. M., F. Saleh, A. Lemme, and H. A. H. Zakaria. 2014. The relationship between guanidino acetic acid and metabolisable energy level of diets on performance of broiler chickens. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 13:548–556. DOI:
  3. Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC). 2005. Official methods of analysis (18 Edn). Association of Official Analytical Chemist Inc. Mayland. USA
  4. Ballmer P. E. 2001. Causes and mechanisms of hypoalbuminemia. Clinical Nutrition. 20(3): 271-273. DOI:
  5. Barekatain, R., G. Nattrass, A. J. Tilbrook, K. Chousalkar, and S. Gilani. 2019. Reduced protein diet and amino acid concentration alter intestinal barrier function and performance of broiler chickens with or without synthetic glucocorticoid. Poultry Science. 98: 3662–3675.
  6. Bobbo T., Fiore E., Gianesella M., Morgante M., Gallo L., Ruegg P. L., Bittante G., and Cecchinato A. 2017. Variation in blood serum proteins and association with somatic cell count in dairy cattle from multi-ras herds. The Animal Consortium. 11(12):1-11. DOI:
  7. Boroumandnia, Z., H. Khosravinia, B. Masouri, and B. Parizadian Kavan. 2021. Effects of dietary supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid on physiological response of broiler chicken exposed to repeated lactic acid injection. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 20:153–162. DOI:
  8. Bouton, P.E. and P.V. Harris. 1972. The effect of cooking temperature and time on some mechanical properties of meat. Journal Food Science. 97:140-144.
  9. Dalimartha, S. 2011. 36 Resep tumbuhan obat untu menurunkan kolesterol. Edisi Revisi. Penebar Swadaya. Jakarta
  10. DeGroot, A. A., U. Braun, and R. N. Dilger. 2018. Efficacy of guanidinoacetic acid on growth and muscle energy metabolism in broiler chicks receiving arginine-deficient diets. Poultry Science. 97: 890–900. DOI:
  11. Dilger, R. N., K. Bryant-Angeloni, R. L. Payne, A. Lemme, and C. M. Parsons. 2013. Dietary guanidino acetic acid is an efficacious replacement for arginine for young chicks. Poultry Science. 92:171–177. DOI :
  12. Gregory, N. 2010. How climatic changes could affect meat quality. Food Research International. 43:1866-1873. DOI:
  13. Hochleithner, Manfred. 2013. Avian Medicine, Principles and Application (Chapter 11: Biochemistries). 223- 245
  14. Kartikasari, L. R., B. S. Hertanto, I. Santoso, and A. M. P. Nuhriawangsa. 2018. Physical quality of broiler chicken feeding corn and soybean based feed with purslane flour supplementation (Portulaca Oleracea). Jurnal Teknologi Pangan. 12: 64-71. DOI:
  15. Kharbanda, K. K., S. L.Todero, P. G. Thomes, D. J. Orlicky, N. A. Osna, S. W. French, and D. J. Tuma. 2014. Increased methylation demand exacerbates ethanol-induced liver injury. Experimental and molecular pathology. 97(1), 49–56. DOI:
  16. Krishnegowda, A., N. Padmarajaiah, S. Anantharaman, and K. Honnur. 2017. Spectrophotometric assay of creatinine in human serum sample. Arab Journal Chemistry. DOI:
  17. Lawrie, R. A. 1991. Meat Science, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, New York, 56-60
  18. Lemme, A., J. Ringel, H. S. Rostagno, and M. S. Redshaw. 2007a. Supplemental guanidino acetic acid improved feed conversion, weight gain, and breast meat yield in male and female broilers. 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 335–338
  19. Liu, Y., J. L. Li, Y. J. Li, T. Gao, L. Zhang, F. Gao, and G. H. Zhou. 2015. Effects of dietary supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid and combination of guanidinoacetic acid and betaine on postmortem glycolysis and meat quality of finishing pigs. Journal Animal Feed Science and Technology. 205:82–89. DOI:
  20. Mantis, N.J., N. Rol, B. Corthesy. 2011. Secretory IgA’s complex roles in immunity and mucosal homeostasis in the gut. Mucossal Immunology. 4: 603-611. DOI:
  21. Nuradi, Jangga, and F. Isma. 2019. Analysis of differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels from freezes blood before centrifuge and the directly centrifuged. Jurnal Media Analis Kesehatan. DOI:
  22. Pertiwi, D. D. R., and R. Murwani, and T. Yudiarti. 2017. Relative weight of broiler digestive tract by addition of turmeric water in drinking water. Jurnal Peternakan Indonesia. 19(2): 61-65. DOI:
  23. Ponte, P.I.P., S. P. Alves, R.J.B.Bessa, L.M.A. Ferreira, L.T. Gama, J.L.A. Bras, C.M.G.A.Fontes and J. Prantes. 2008. Influence of pasture intake on the fatty acid composition, and cholesterol, tocopherols, and tocotrienols content in meat from free-range broilers. Poultry Science. 83: 810-814. DOI:
  24. Prasetyo, H., M. C. Padaga, and M. E. Sawitri. 2013. Kajian kualitas fisiko kimia daging sapi di pasar kota Malang. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Ternak. 8(2): 1-8. DOI:
  25. Riyanto, J. 2004. Tampilan kualitas fisik daging sapi peranakan ongole (PO). Jurnal Pengembangan Tropis. Edisi Spesial (2): 28-32
  26. Senja, N. O., S. K. Widyastudi, I. G. M. K. Erawan. 2020. Kadar protein total serum sapi bali betina di sentra pembibitan sapi bali desa Sobangan, Badung. Indonesia Medicus Veterinus. DOI:
  27. Soeparno. 2005. Komposisi karkas dan teknologi daging. Fakultas Peternakan. Pascasarjana UGM. Yogyakarta
  28. Wowor, F. J. 2013. Perbandingan kadar trigliserida darah pada pria perokok dan bukan perokok. Jurnal e-Biomedik (eBM). 2013: 986-990. DOI:
  29. Ndazigaruye, G., D. H. Kim, C. W. Kang, K. R. Kang, Y. J. Joo, S. R. Lee, and K. W. Lee. 2019. Effects of low-protein diets and exogenous Protease on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal morphology, cecal volatile fatty acids and serum parameters in broilers. Animals (Basel). 9(5): 226.

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2023-12-05 12:18:56

No citation recorded.