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Selenium dan Vitamin C Sebagai Pengobatan Pencegahan Pada Keracunan Pestisida (Studi Eksperimen Pada Petani Penyemprot di Temanggung Jawa Tengah)

Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

Received: 25 Feb 2019; Revised: 2 Jan 2020; Accepted: 5 Jan 2020; Published: 1 Feb 2020.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 MKMI under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Gejala keracunan organofosfat adalah hasil dari menghalangi aktivitas enzim cholinesterase darah (ChEA). Kemampuan hati untuk melakukan de toxin menggunakan jalur O-Dealchylation pada organofosfat dan cholinesterase yang diikat dan dibantu oleh enzim Glutathione peroxides (GPX) memiliki peran penting dalam mengembalikan level ChEA ke level normal. GPX tergantung pada keberadaan selenium. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan manfaat yang lebih dimengerti dari penambahan selenium dan vitamin C terhadap tingkat ChEA, GPX dan hemoglobin dari para petani yang bekerja sebagai penyemprot pestisida.

Metode: Merupakan penelitian eksperimental menggunakan Desain Kelompok Kontrol pretest-posttest. Sembilan puluh sembilan responden di desa Pasuruan, Kecamatan Bulu, Temanggung yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi dipilih sebagai sampel penelitian. Sampel dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok yang terdiri dari 33 orang. Kelompok pertama hanya menerima Selenium, kelompok kedua menerima Selenium dan Vitamin C dan kelompok ketiga adalah kelompok kontrol (tidak diberikan suplemen). Sampel darah dari semua sampel penelitian diambil untuk mengidentifikasi tingkat ChEA, GPX dan hemoglobin sebelum dan sesudah percobaan  

Hasil: Tingkat ChEA pada kelompok pertama dibandingkan dengan kelompok ketiga berbeda nyata (p = 0,05). Temuan serupa juga ditemukan untuk tingkat ChEA pada kelompok kedua dibandingkan dengan kelompok ketiga (p = 0,014). Suplementasi Selenium 200 μg selama 7 hari di antara petani penyemprot pestisida meningkatkan kadar ChEA 1,85% dan kadar hemoglobin 2,66%.

Simpulan: Terdapat perbedaan yang significant antara tingkat ChEA pada kelompok pertama dibandingkan dengan kelompok lainnya.  

 

Kata kunci: Selenium, Vit C, tingkat GPX, ChEA dan Hemoglobin

ABSTRACT

Title: Selenium and Vitamin C As a Preventive Medicine for Pesticide Poisoning (Experimental Study on Spraying Farmers in Temanggung, Central Java)

 

Background: Symptoms of organophosphate intoxication are a result of blocking the activity of blood cholinesterase enzyme (ChEA).   The ability of liver to do de toxification using pathway of O-Dealchylation on organophosphate and cholinesterase bound and helped out by Glutathione peroxides enzyme (GPX) has important role in returning the level of ChEA to the normal level. GPX is dependent on the presence of selenium. The objective of this study is to obtain more understandable benefit of adding selenium and vitamin C towards the ChEA, GPX and hemoglobin level of farmers worked as pesticide sprayers.

Method: This is an experimental study using Pretest-posttest Control Group Design.  Ninety nine respondents in Pasuruan village, sub district of Bulu, Temanggung  who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected as study samples. Samples were divided into 3 groups of 33 people. First group received only Selenium, second group received Selenium and Vitamin C and third group is a control group (no supplementation given). Blood samples of all study samples were taken to identify the level of ChEA, GPX and hemoglobin before and after experiment

Result: Level of ChEA in the first group compared with the third group was significantly different (p=0.05). Similar finding was also found for the level of ChEA in second group compared with third group (p= 0.014). Supplementation of Selenium 200 µg for 7 days among pesticides sprayers farmers increase 1.85% level of ChEA and 2.66% level of hemoglobin.

Conclusion: There is a significant difference between ChEA levels in the first group compared to other groups

 

Keywords: Selenium, vit C, level of GPX, ChEA and Hemoglobin.

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Keywords: Selenium; Vit C; tingkat GPX; ChEA dan Hemoglobin

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