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Pengaruh Pandemi Covid-19 terhadap Pelayanan Imunisasi Rutin pada Anak: Kajian Literatur

*Ratna Indahsari  -  Departemen Administrasi dan Kebijakan Kesehatan, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Indonesia, Depok|Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright 2021 MEDIA KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.

Citation Format:
Abstract

Latar belakang: Pandemi COVID-19 telah memberikan dampak terhadap sistem pelayanan kesehatan, yaitu terganggunya pelayanan kesehatan dasar seperti pelayanan imunisasi rutin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pandemi COVID-19 terhadap layanan imunisasi rutin serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kajian literatur dengan menggunakan data sekunder yang berasal dari publikasi literatur terdahulu. Terdapat total 17.500 publikasi yang teridentifikasi berkaitan dengan topik yang dicari. Setelah dilakukan screening kedua dengan menggunakan cakupan tahun publikasi dari tahun 2020-2021 maka didapatkan 36 publikasi.

Hasil: Beberapa negara di dunia mengalami penurunan cakupan imunisasi dan pemanfaatan layanan selama pandemi COVID-19. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi hal tersebut yaitu ketakutan masyarakat akan terpapar virus COVID-19, ketidaksiapan sistem pelayanan kesehatan dan keterbatasan mobilitas masyarakat. Dalam mengatasi dampak disrupsi imunisasi rutin, tenaga kesehatan dan pemerintah harus berupaya untuk meningkatkan cakupan dan target imunisasi yang mengalami ketertinggalan.

Simpulan: Adanya pandemi COVID-19 mempengaruhi terdisrupsinya layanan kesehatan esensial termasuk layanan imunisasi, menyebabkan menurunnya cakupan imunisasi PD3I, dan dapat berisiko terhadap timbulnya masalah kesehatan lain seperti kejadian luar biasa (KLB) PD3I.

Kata Kunci: Imunisasi Rutin; Covid-19; Dampak Disrupsi Layanan Imunisasi

 

ABSTRACT

Title: The Effect of The Covid-19 Pandemic on Routine Immunization Services for Children: Literature Review

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting on the health care system, namely the disruption of basic health services such as routine immunization services. This study aims to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine immunization services as well as the factors that affect them.

Method: This study conducted literature review method using secondary data derived from previous literature publications.

Result: Some countries around the world had reported a decrease in immunization coverage and service utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic. Factors that influence this are people's fear of exposure to the COVID-19 virus, unpreparedness of the health care system and limited mobility of the community. In addressing the impact of routine immunization disruptions, health workers and governments should strive to improve the coverage and targets of immunizations.

Conclusion: The existence of the COVID-19 pandemic affects the disruption of essential health services including immunization services, causes a decrease in PD31 immunization coverage, and can be a risk of other health problems such as PD31 outbreaks.

Keyword: Routine Immunization; Covid-19; Disruption Immunization Services Impact

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Keywords: Imunisasi Rutin; COVID-19; Dampak Disrupsi Layanan Imunisasi

Article Metrics:

  1. Ranganathan R, Khan AM. Routine immunization services during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Indian J Community Heal. 2020;32(2 Special Issue):236–9
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  5. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia dan UNICEF. Routine Immunization for Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia : Perceptions of Parents and Caregivers August 2020. 2020;(August):1–12. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/indonesia/media/6066/file/Routine immunization for children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia: Perceptions of parents and caregivers.pdf
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  9. Mansour Z, Arab J, Said R, Rady A, Hamadeh R, Gerbaka B, et al. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the utilization of routine immunization services in Lebanon. PLoS One [Internet]. 2021;16(2 Febuary):1–11. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246951
  10. COVID-19 continues to disrupt essential health services in 90% of countries [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jun 22]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news/item/23-04-2021-covid-19-continues-to-disrupt-essential-health-services-in-90-of-countries
  11. Why Are Childhood Vaccines So Important? | CDC [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jun 22]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/howvpd.htm
  12. World Immunization Week 2021 - Vaccines bring us closer [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jun 22]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/events/detail/2021/04/24/default-calendar/world-immunization-week-2021
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  14. Several European Countries Under New COVID Lockdown Restrictions | Voice of America - English [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jun 22]. Available from: https://www.voanews.com/covid-19-pandemic/several-european-countries-under-new-covid-lockdown-restrictions
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