Extraction of Natural Dyes from Palm’s Empty Fruit Bunches and Their Application on Cotton Fabric

Wusana Agung Wibowo

DOI: https://doi.org/10.12777/wastech.5.2.%25p


Natural dyes was extracted from palm’s empty fruit bunches (PEFB) by water extraction and applied for cotton fabric dyeing. The extracted dyes was characterized by liquid mass spectrometry and dyed cotton fabric was characterized by color fastnest to laundering and rubbing tests. Experimental results showed that soxhlet extraction process of PEFB for 80 minutes yielded 13.8%bw of solid dyes to naturally-dried PEFB with 4.15%bw of tannins. Furthermore, production of natural dyes was carried out in a 500 ml flask by extracting 25 g of PEFB in 250 ml of water at 100oC for 120 minutes. Absorbance of extracted dyes was found to be 3.925 at λmax. Cotton fabric dyeing was conducted at room temperature for all steps and post-mordanted by using Alum. The colors of the dyed cotton fabrics were then measured and expressed according to CIELab color system. Furthermore, the color fastnest test results obtained by Stainning Scale and Grey Scale were found to be 4-5 by color differences of 2. These results showed that dyed cotton fabric give a good rank on color fastnest.   


water-based extraction; absorbance; Alum; color-fastnest; CIELab


Aanifah, F.J.M., Yee, P.L., Wasoh, H. and Abd-Aziz, S. 2014. Effect of different alkaline treatment on the release of ferrulic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 26(4): 321-331.

Abdullah, N., Sulaiman, F. and Gerhauser, H. 2011. Characterisation of oil palm empty fruit bunches for fuel application. Journal of Physical Science, 22(1): 1-24.

Ahmad, T., Rafatullah, M., Ghazali, A., Sulaiman, O. and Hashim, R. 2011. Oil palm biomass-based adsorbents for the removal of water pollutans-a review. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 29(Part C): 177-222.

Ain, J.N., Sakinah, A.M.M. and Zularisam, A.W. 2016. Effects of different extraction conditions on the production of anthraquinone. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 10(17): 128-135.

Alam, M.Z., Muyibi, S.A., Mansor, M.F. and Wahid, R. 2007. Activated carbon derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: Application to environmental problems. Journal of Environmental Science, 19: 103-108.

Alemaheyu, T. and Teklemariam, Z. 2014. Application of natural dyes on textile: a review. International Journal of Research – Granthaalayah, 2(2): 61-68.

Baldosano, H.Y., Castilo, M.B.M.C., Elloran, C.D.H. and Bacani, F.T. 2015. Effect of particle size, solvent and extraction time on tannin extract from Spondias pupurea bark through soxhlet extraction. Proceedings of the DLSU Research Congress, 3. De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines. P. 1-6.

Boasiako, A.C. and Animapauh, S.O. 2012. Tannin extraction from the barks of three tropical hardwoods for the production of adhesives. Journal of Applied Science Research, 8(6): 2959-2965.

Chavan, U.D. and Amarowic, R. 2013. Effect of various solvent systems on extraction of phenolics, tannins and sugars from beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.). Int. Food Research Journal, 20(3): 1139-1144.

Daberao, A.M., Kolte, P.P. and Turukmane, R.N. 2016. Cotton dyeing with natural dye. Int. Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation, 3(8): 157-161.

Deaville, E.R., Givens, D.I. and Mueler-harvey, I. 2010. Chesnut & Mimosa Tannin Silages: Effect In Sheep Differ for Apparent Digestibilty, Nitrogen Utilitation & Losses. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 157: 129-138.

Elgailani, I.E.H. and Ishak, C.Y. 2016. Methods for extraction and charaterization of tannins from some Acacia species of Sudan. Pak. J. Anal. Environmental Chemistry, 17(1): 43-49.

Ghazali, A., Zukeri, M.R.H.M., Dermawan, Y.M., Kamaludin, N.H., Ibrahiim, R., Wan Daud, W.R., Azhari, B. and Ahmed, I. 2014. Nanofibre network rooted from the alkaline peroxide treatment of palm empty fruit bunches. Advanced Materials Research, 832: 500-505.

Hayawin, N., Astimar, A.A., Anis, M., Ibrahim, M.H., Khalil, H.P.S.A. and Ibrahim, Z. 2012. Vermicomposting of empty fruit bunch with addition of palm oil mill effluent solid. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 24(December 2012): 1542-1549.

Ibrahim, M.N.M., Nor Nadiah, M.Y. and Amirul, A.A. 2005. Extraction of tannin from oil palm empty fruit bunch as a rust deactivator. Materials Science and Engineering MI08. Proceedings of Regional Symposium on Chemical Engineering 2005. Hanoi Horison Hotel, Hanoi, Vietnam. 30 November – 2 December 2005.

Ivancic, H. and Koh, L.P. 2016. Evolution of sutainable palm oil policy in Southeast Asia. Cogent Environmental Science, 2: 1-10.

Lim, P.N., Wu, T.Y., Clarke, C. and Nik Daud, N.N. 2015. A potential bioconversion of empty fruit bunches into organic fertilizer using Eudrilus eugeniae. Int. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12: 2533-2544.

Malioa, M.N., Mahendradatta, M., Laga, A. and Djide, N. 2013. Tannin extract of Guava leaves (Psidium guajaya L.) variation with concentration organic solvents. Int. Journal of Science and Technology Research, 2(9): 106-110.

Markom, M., Hasan, M., Wan Daud, W.R., Singh, H. and Md. Jahim, J. 2007. Extraction of hydroysable tannins from Phyllanthus niruri Linn.: Effect of solvents and extraction methods. Separation and Purification Technology, 52: 487-496.

Mohd Nawawi, M.G.,; Othman, N., Sadikin, A.N. and Ismail, N.C. 2008. Lignocellulosic fiber media filters as a potential technology for primary industrial wastewater treatment. Jurnal Teknologi, 49(F) Dis. 2008: 149-157.

Mohammad Gias Uddin. 2015. Extraction of eco-friendly natural dyes from mango leaves and their application on silk fabric. Textiles and Clothing Sustainability, 1(7): 1-8.

Mukherjee, I. and Sovacool, B.K. 2014. Palm oil-based biofuels and sustainability in Southeast Asia:A review of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 37: 1-12.

Richana, N., Winarti, C., Hidayat, T. and Prastowo, B. 2015. Hydrolysis of empty fruit bunches of palm oil (Elais guineensis Jacq.) by chemical, physical, and enzymatic methods for bioethanol production. Int. Journal of Chemical Engineering and Application, 6(6): 422-426.

Rosli, N.S., Harun, S., Md Jahim, J. and Othaman, R. 2017. Chemical and physical characterization of oil palm empty fruit bunch. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 21(1): 188-196.

Sabrina, D.T., Gandahi, A.W., Hanafi, M.M., Mahmud, T.M.M. and Nor Azwady, A.A. 2012. Oil palm empty-fruit bunch application effects on the eartworm population and phenol contents under field conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(19): 4396-4406.

Shahid, M., Ul-Islam, S. and Mohammad, F. 2013. Recent advancements in natural dye applications: a review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 53: 310-331.

Shariff, A., Aziz, N.S.M. and Abdullah, N. 2014. Slow pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches for biochar production and characterisation. Journal of Physical Science, 25(2): 97-112.

Sukiran, M.A., Abu Bakar, N.K. and Chin, C.M. 2009. Optimization of pyrolisis of oil palm empty fruit bunches. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 21(December 2009): 653-658.

Technical Services Department, Hunter Associates Laboratory, Inc. 2008. Gray change and gray stain scale. Insight on Color, 7(1): 1-3.

Vieira, M.C., Lelis, R.C.C., Da Silva, B.C. and Oliveira, D.L.G. 2011. Tannin extraction from the bark of Pinus oocarpa var. Oocarpa with sodium carbonate & sodium bisulfite. Floresta e Ambiente, 18(1): 1-8.

Wang, C., Li, M., Zhang, L., Fu, S. and Wang, C. 2016. Extraction of natural dyes from Cinnamomum camphora (L.) presl fruit and their application on wool fabric. Textile Research Journal, 0(00): 1-11.

Yasukawa, A., Chida, A., Kato, Y. and Kasai, M. 2016. Dyeing silk and cotton fabrics using natural blackcurrants. Textile Research Journal, 0(00): 1:9

Yinshi, S., Zhengbo, L. and Jianhua, W. 2011. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of five isofalvones from Iris tectorum Maxim. Separation and Purification Technology, 78: 49-54.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by Waste Resources Research Center (WRRC), Diponegoro University - Indonesia
WasTech by http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/wastech is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0.