Management of Peat Fires on Smoldering Phase (Case Study: District Siak and District Kampar Riau Province)

Syafrudin Syafrudin, Haryono S. Huboyo, Bella Nasila D


DOI: https://doi.org/10.12777/wastech.3.2.47-54

Abstract


The difficulty of finding land for farming activities in Indonesia caused some communities began to switch utilizing peat land for agricultural areas such as oil palm. Oil palm plantation is a commodity that has been developed in Indonesia.Oil palm planted area has increased rapidly.Since 1967 extensive oil palm plantations has increased 35times to 5.6 million ha in 2005 and about 7.8 million ha in 2009. The biggest expansion of oil palm plantations occur in 6 province,one of them is Riau.Most people take a practical way to open agricultural areas by burning peat.Riau Province in Indonesia is one of the major hotspots for peat fires during the dry season. Peat fire at smouldering phaseemits a lot of compounds that are not completely oxidized (e.g. CO, VOCs, PAHs) that more dangerous than the emissions released during combustion at flaming fires. Particulate Matter (PM 2.5) is one of the emissions from peat fires too.However, existing data on VOCs and PM 2.5 of smoke from peat fires Indonesia is still limited.The aim of this study was to analyze the concentration of VOCs and PM 2.5 on emissions from peat fires in the Langkai Village Siak District and RimboPanjang Village Kampar District Riau Province when compared with background site and the permissible exposure limit and provide recommendations based on the results of this research.VOCs measurement method is based on NIOSH 1500 and EPA TO-17 while the PM 2.5 based on IMPROVE A method. The average concentration of PM 2.5 is 996.72 ± 531.01μg/m3. PM2.5 concentrations increased (compared with the background site) was very high at 4,838%.This condition causes a decrease in air quality and serious health problems. While the results of the maximum TVOCs concentration obtained in Siak District was 391,880 g/m3, while in Kampar Districtwas 195,940 g/m3. TVOCs concentration atSiak Districtwas 130.63 times greater than the existing quality standards, while at Kampar District regency was 65.31 times.Environmental improvement recommendations based on the results of this research were buffer zone areadesign to reduce air pollution as a result of peat fires and sealing the ditchs to prevent the spread of fires.


Keywords


Air Pollution; Healt; Fire Peat; VOCs, PM 2.5, Buffer Zone

Full Text:

FULL TEXT PDF

References


Akagi S.K., Yokelson RJ, Wiedinmyer C,. Alvarado MJ, Reid JS., Karl T, Crounse JD, and Wennberg PO. Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4039–4072, 2011

Fujii, Y., Iriana, W., Oda, M., Puriwigati, A., Tohno, S., Lestari, P., Mizohata, A., and Huboyo, HS 2014.Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from Peatland fire in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia. Atmos. Environ., 87, 164-169, 2014.

Freer-Smith, P.H., El-Khatib, A.A., Taylor, G., 2004. Capture of particulate pollution by trees: a comparison of species typical of semi-arid areas (Ficus nitida and Eucalyptus globulus) with European and North American species. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 155, 173, 187.

Giesen, W. 1991. Berbak Wildlife Reserve. Jambi. Reconnaisance Survey Report. PHPS/AWB Sumatera Wetland Project Report No 13. Asean Wetland Bureau-Indonesia. Bogor.

Gilman, Edward F., Watson, Dennis G.,1993. Ficus benjamina Weeping Fig. FactSheet ST-251. USA

Hamada Y, Untung Darung, Limin SH, Ryusuke Hatano. 2013.Characteristics of fire-generated gas emission observed during a large peatland fire in 2009 at Kalimantan, Indonesia. Atmospheric Environment 74 (2013) 177-181

Levine, JS 2000.Global biomass burning: A case study of the gaseous and particulate emissions released to the atmosphere during the 1997 fires in Borneo and Sumatra, Indonesia, in Biomass Burning and Its Inter-RelationshipsWith the Climate System, edited by JL Innes, M. Beniston, and MM Verstraete, pp. 15-31, Dordrecht, Norwell

McCafffrey B. 1995. Flame Height. The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 2nd Ed., National Fire Protection Association, Quincy MA., USA, pp. 2-1 to 2-8

Muraleedharan, TR, Rajojevic, M., Waμgh, A., and Caruana, A. 2000.Chemical characteristics of haze in Brunei Darussalam during the 1998 episode.Atmospheric Environment 34, 2725-2731.

Rastogi N, Singh A, Singh D, Sarin MM.2014. Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 at a source region of biomass burning emissions: Evidence for secondary aerosol formation. Environmental Pollution 184 (2014) 563-569

Reid, JSR Koppmann, TF Eck, and DP Eleuterio. 2005. A review of biomass burning emissions Part II: Intensive physical properties of biomass burning particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 799-825, 2005.

Rein G, 2013. Smouldering fires and natural fuels, C. Belcher (Ed.), Fire Phenomena in the Earth System – An Interdisciplinary Approach to Fire Science, Wiley and Sons, London (2013), pp. 15–34

Syaufina, L. 2003. Guidelines for Implementation of Controlled Burning Practices.Faculty of Forestry. Bogor.

World Health Organization. 2013. Health Effects of Particulate Matter. Policy implications for countries in eastern Europe, Caucasus and central Asia.Denmark


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Published by Waste Resources Research Center (WRRC), Diponegoro University - Indonesia
   
 
WasTech by http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/wastech is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0.