Urban Feature Extraction from Merged Airborne LiDAR Data and Digital Camera Data

*Lamyaa Gamal EL-Deen Taha  -  professor of surveying and photogrammetry, Egypt
A. I. Ramzi  -  Aviation and Aerial photography division, National Authority of Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS), Egypt
A. Syarawi  -  Aviation and Aerial photography division, National Authority of Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS), Egypt
A. Bekheet  -  Aviation and Aerial photography division, National Authority of Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS), Egypt
Received: 25 Nov 2019; Published: 1 Nov 2020.
Open Access License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0

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Until recently, the most highly accurate digital surface models were obtained from airborne lidar. With the development of a new generation of large format digital photogrammetric aerial camera, a fully digital photogrammetric workflow became possible. Digital airborne images are sources for elevation extraction and orthophoto generation. This research concerned with the generation of digital surface models and orthophotos as applications from high-resolution images.  In this research, the following steps were performed. A Benchmark data of LIDAR and digital aerial camera have been used.  Firstly, image orientation, AT have been performed. Then the automatic digital surface model DSM generation has been produced from the digital aerial camera. Thirdly true digital ortho has been generated from the digital aerial camera also orthoimage will be generated using LIDAR digital elevation model (DSM). Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS) module of Erdsa Imagine 2014 software was utilized for processing. Then the resulted orthoimages from both techniques were mosaicked. The results show that automatic digital surface model DSM that been produced from digital aerial camera method has very high dense photogrammetric 3D point clouds compared to the LIDAR 3D point clouds. It was found that the true orthoimage produced from the second approach is better than the true orthoimage produced from the first approach. The five approaches were tested for classification of the best-orthorectified image mosaic using subpixel based (neural network) and pixel-based ( minimum distance and maximum likelihood).Multicues were extracted such as texture(entropy-mean),Digital elevation model, Digital surface model ,normalized digital surface model (nDSM) and intensity image. The contributions of the individual cues used in the classification have been evaluated. It was found that the best cue integration is intensity (pan) +nDSM+ entropy followed by intensity (pan) +nDSM+mean then intensity image +mean+ entropy after that DSM )image and two texture measures (mean and entropy) followed by the colour image. The integration with height data increases the accuracy. Also, it was found that the integration with entropy texture increases the accuracy. Resulted in fifteen cases of classification it was found that maximum likelihood classifier is the best followed by minimum distance then neural network classifier. We attribute this to the fine resolution of the digital camera image. Subpixel classifier (neural network) is not suitable for classifying aerial digital camera images.


Keywords: LIDAR- Digital photogrammetric camera –True orthoimage-Digital photogrammetry- Matching –DSM-Texture
Funding: provision of the Downtown Toronto data set by Optech Inc., First Base Solutions Inc., York University, and ISPRS WG III/4

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