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Variabilitas Suhu dan Klorofil-a di Daerah Upwelling pada Variasi Kejadian ENSO dan IOD di Perairan Selatan Jawa sampai Timor

1Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Diponegoro, Tembalang, Semarang. Telp./Fax. 0247474698; HP. 08121471191, Email: kunarsojpr@yahoo.com, Indonesia

2Program Studi Oseanografi, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia

3Jurusan Perikanan, FPIK, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia

Received: 17 Feb 2012; Published: 18 Feb 2012.

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Abstract

Informasi mengenai variabilitas spasial suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut memiliki peran penting sebagai sarana pendugaan daerah potensi ikan tuna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dan menggambarkan variabilitas suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut baik secara spasial maupun temporal di daerah upwelling pada variasi kejadian El Nino Southern Oscilation (ENSO) dan Indian Oscillation Dipole Mode (IOD) di perairan Selatan Jawa hingga Timor. Variabilitas suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut dikaji berdasarkan data-data MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spektroradiometer) bulanan Level 3 dari satelit Aqua dan Terra. Nilai suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut bervariasi menurut waktu (bulan), wilayah (provinsi) dan variasi antar tahunan iklim global (El Niño-IOD(-), El Niño-IOD(+), La Niña-IOD(-) dan  La Niña-IOD(+). Secara umum kisaran suhu permukaan laut (SPL)  di  daerah  upwelling  pada  variasi  ENSO  dan  IOD  berkisar 26,18 -28,35°C  dengan  rerata 27,04±0,93°C. Kisaran klorofil-a sebesar 0,3-0,95 mg/M³ dengan rerata 0,69±0,28mg/M³. Mulai bulan Juni umumnya nilai suhu permukaan laut (SPL) semakin turun dan klorofil-a semakin meningkat hingga mencapai puncak bulan Agustus atau September, kemudian berangsur normal kembali. Nilai suhu permukaan laut terendah  ditemukan berkembang dari timur (Bali) pada bulan Juni bergerak ke barat hingga Jawa Barat di bulan Oktober. Nilai klorofil-a tinggi berkembang sesuai dengan perkembangan suhu terendah, namun nilai klorofil-a tertinggi umumnya bergerak tidak sesuai dengan perkembangan SPL terendah. Klorofil-a tertinggi umumnya terjadi di perairan selatan Provinsi Bali. Jauh dekatnya pergerakan SPL terendah dan klorofil-a tinggi tampak dipengaruhi nilai IOD-nya, semakin besar nilai IOD maka semakin jauh gerakannya ke barat.

Kata Kunci : Variabilitas, suhu, klorofil-a, upwelling, perairan selatan Jawa

 

The information of spatial variabilities of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a are important for predicting potential fishing ground of tuna. The aims of the reseach are to describe and study the spatial and temporal variabilities of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a at  upwelling area  during the variabilities of El Nino Southern Oscilation (ENSO) and Indian Oscillation Dipole Mode (IOD) event  at southern waters of Jawa until Timor Island. They were studied based on monthly MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spektroradiometer) data  Level 3 from Aqua and Terra satelite. The values of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a are variable in the times (month), areas (province) and annually global climate (El Niño-IOD(-), El Niño-IOD(+), La Niña-IOD(-) dan  La Niña-IOD(+). Commonly range of the seawater surface temperature (SST) at upwelling area on the variabilities of ENSO and IOD are about 26.18-28.35°C with average 27.04±0,93°C, whereas average of chlorophyll-a are about 0.3-0.95 mg/m³ with average 0.69±0,28mg/M³. From June, sea surface temperature starts to decrease but clhorophyl-a is increasing and back to  normal after reaching peak in August or September. The lowest sea surface temperature was found developing from east (Bali) in June and then moving to west until southern west Java  in  October. The development of high chlorophyll-a values are suitable with that of low sea surface temperature. However the development of highest chlorophyll-a generally move inconsistent with that of lowest sea surface temperature. The highest chlorophyll-a generally happen at the southern of Bali Province. The distance movement of the low sea surface temperature and high chlorophyll-a distributions are affected by IOD value, the higher IOD value the further they move to the west.

Key words: Variability, temperature, khlorophyll-a, upwelling, southern waters of Jawa
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