Kandungan Senyawa Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH) di Teluk Jakarta (Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Hydrocarbons (PAH) Content in Jakarta Bay)

*Fasmi Ahmad -  Stasiun Penelitian Lapangan LIPI Ternate. Jalan Pertamina Sasa Ternate, Indonesia. HP: 081356689507, Email:, Indonesia
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Language: EN
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Abstract

Perairan Teluk Jakarta menerima limbah yang berasal dari darat maupun perairan itu sendiri. Salah satu limbah tersebut adalah senyawa organik Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH) yang merupakan senyawa organik bersifat toksik terhadap biota laut. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui kandungan PAH air laut dan sedimen dalam kaitannya dengan kehidupan biota laut serta mengetahui sumber senyawa tersebut. Pengukuran dilakukan bulan Maret 2011. Contoh air laut diambil dengan water sampler dan contoh sedimen dengan grab pada 15 stasiun. Kadar PAH dianalisa dengan Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar PAH air laut di Teluk Jakarta Bagian Barat > Bagian Tengah > Bagian Timur. Kandungan PAH di Teluk Jakarta Bagian Barat berkisar 201,57-474,68 ppb dengan total PAH 1404,68 ppb, di Bagian Tengah 104,61-337,07 ppb dengan total 825,63 ppb, dan di Bagian Timur 112,91-370,79 ppb dengan total 806,73 ppb. Data ini menunjukkan Teluk Jakarta Bagian Barat lebih banyak menerima masukan limbah yang mengandung PAH. Sedangkan Kadar PAH sedimen di Teluk Jakarta Bagian Timur > Bagian Tengah > Bagian Barat. Kadar PAH di Teluk Jakarta Bagian Barat berkisar 1,92-64,241 ppm dengan total 107,931 ppm, di Bagian Tengah 16,14-77,71 ppm dengan total 170,61 ppm, dan di Bagian Timur 8,72-115,39 ppm dengan total 252,25 ppm. Data ini menunjukkan sedimen di Teluk Jakarta Bagian Timur lebih banyak mengakumulasi limbah yang mengandung PAH. Sumber PAH dalam air laut dan sedimen ini berasal dari berbagai sumber yakni pembakaran bahan organik, pembakaran minyak bumi, dan tumpahan minyak. Kadar PAH dalam air laut di Teluk Jakarta ini telah melebihi Nilai Ambang Batas yang ditetapkan oleh KMNLH untuk biota laut, dan Nilai Ambang Batas untuk sedimen yang ditetapkan oleh Handbook for Sediment Quality Assessment.

Kata kunci: Teluk Jakarta, Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon, PAH, polusi

Jakarta Bay receives various kinds of waste both from land and waters, including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons organic compounds (PAH). These organic compounds are toxic to marine life. This study determines the content of PAH in sea water and sediments in relation to marine life and to find out the source of the PAH compounds in the Bay of Jakarta. Measurement of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon levels were carried out in March 2011. Sea water samples were taken by using a water sampler and sediment samples taken using a grab at 15 sites. PAH content were analyzed using gas chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector. The results showed that the content of PAH in seawater in the western part of Jakarta Bay > middle > east. The content of PAH in the western of Jakarta Bay ranged from 201,57 to 474,68 ppb with PAH total 1404,68 ppb, in the middle area ranged from 104,61 to 337,07 ppb with PAH total 825,63 ppb, and in the eastern part ranged from 8.72 to 115,39 ppb with PAH total 806,73 ppb. This means that seawater in the western part receives the PAH compound more than the others. However, the content of PAH in sediments in the western part < middle < eastern. This means that sediment in the western part of Jakarta Bay accumulates PAH compound less than the others areas. The content of PAH in the western part of Jakarta Bay ranged from 1.92 to 64.241 ppm with PAH total 107,931 ppm, in middle part ranged from 16.14 to 77.71 ppb with PAH total 170,61 ppm, and in the eastern part range 8,72 to 115.39 ppm with PAH total 252,25 ppm. This means that sediment in the western area of Jakarta Bay accumulates the PAH compound less than the others. Sources of PAH in seawater and sediment came from several sources namely from combustion of organic material, combustion of petroleum, and from petroleum. PAH content in seawater has passed the Threshold Limit Value stated by KMNLH for marine life and also has passed the threshold value stated the Ministry of Environment and Handbook for Sediment Quality Assessment for marine organism.

Key words: Jakarta Bay, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, PAH, pollution

 

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