Perbedaan Efek Paparan Pestisida Kimia dan Organik terhadap Kadar Glutation (GSH) Plasma pada Petani Padi

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jkli.17.2.63-67
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Submitted: 15-01-2018
Published: 01-10-2018
Section: Research Articles
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Latar belakang:Serangan hama dan penyakit tanaman semakin meluas, sehingga para petani tidak dapat menghindari penggunaan pestisida kimia. Pestisida kimia bersifat polutan dan mengakibatkan terbentuknya radikal bebas yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan organ. WHO memperkirakan ada 1,5 juta kasus keracunan pestisida terjadi pada pekerja di sektor pertanian. Tubuh membutuhkan antioksidan untuk menanggulangi radikal bebas akibat pestisida kimia. Salah satu antioksidan yang sering diukur untuk melihat dampak peningkatan radikal bebas adalah glutation(GSH). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan efek paparan pestisida kimia dan organik terhadap kadar GSH plasma pada petani padi. 

Metode:Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah analitik observasional dengan rancangan penelitiancross sectional. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel 30 orang, 15 orang petani organik di Desa Lombok Kulon Kecamatan Wonosari Kabupaten Bondowoso dan 15 orang petani anorganik di Desa Dawuhan Kecamatan Tenggarang Kabupaten Bondowoso.  Pengambilan sampel darah dilakukan di vena mediana cubiti, selanjutnya dilakukan pengukuran kadar GSH plasma menggunakan metode Elman. Uji statistika dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Unpaired T-test.

Hasil:Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara kadar GSH plasma petani anorganik dan organik p<0.05. Petani anorganik memiliki rata-rata kadar GSH plasma lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan rata-rata kadar GSH plasma petani organik. Hal tersebut terjadi karena para petani anorganik mendapatkan paparan polutan berlebih dari zat-zat kimia dalam pestisida kimia sedangkan petani organik menggunakan bahan alami sehingga tidak menimbulkan residu dalam tubuh.

Simpulan: Terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara kadar GSH plasma pada kelompok petani anorganik dan kelompok petani organik. Kadar GSH plasma petani anorganik lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan kadar GSH plasma petani organik.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: The Difference Effect of Chemical and Organic Pesticides Exposure to Plasma Glutathione (GSH) on Rice Farmers

Background: Pests and plant diseases are widespread in agriculture so the use of chemical pesticides can not avoid. Pesticides are pollutants which forming free radicals and cause organ damage. WHO estimates that 1.5 million cases of pesticide poisoning occur in agricultural workers. The body needs antioxidant to cope free radicals due to chemical pesticides. GSH is one of antioxidants often measured to see the effects of increased free radicals in the body.This study aims to determine the differences effect of chemical and organic pesticide exposure on plasma glutathione (GSH) levels in rice farmers.

Methods: The type of this research is observational analytics with cross sectional design. This study used 30 people as sample, 15 people organic farmers in the Desa Lombok Kulon, Kecamatan Wonosari, Bondowoso and 15 people inorganic farmers in Desa Dawuhan, Kecamatan Tenggarang, Bondowoso. Blood sampling was done in mediana cubiti vein, then measured of  plasma GSH using Elman method. The statistical test was done by using Unpaired T-test.

Results: The resulf of this research showed that there is a significant difference between plasma GSH level of inorganic farmer and organic farmer p <0.05. The average plasma GSH level of inorganic farmersare lower than average plasma GSH levels of organic farmers. This result is caused by excessive pollutants of chemicals contained in the pesticide exposed inorganic farmers while the group of organic farmers used natural ingredients in the pesticide so it did not makes residues in the body of farmers.

Conclusion: Based on this, it is advisable for farmers to be more wise to use chemical pesticides in accordance with established rules and better recommended to replace the use of chemical pesticides with organic pesticides.

Keywords

chemical pesticides; organic pesticide; plasma glutathione (GSH)

  1. Ain Yuanita Insani 
    University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia
  2. Ancah Caesarina Novi Marchianti 
    University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia
  3. Septa Surya Wahyudi 
    University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia
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