Faktor Risiko Bahaya Tempat Kerja dan Lingkungan Rumah terhadap Kesehatan Home-based Worker di Kota Semarang

*Nikie Astorina Yunita Dewanti  -  Bagian Kesehatan Lingkungan, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Sulistiyani Sulistiyani  -  Bagian Kesehatan Lingkungan, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Yuliani Setyaningsih  -  Bagian Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Siswi Jayanti  -  Bagian Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Received: 19 Mar 2018; Published: 2 Apr 2018.
Open Access Copyright 2018 JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0

Citation Format:
Abstract

Latar belakang: Pekerja rumahan (home-based worker) adalah fenomena yang sering ditemui di kaya dan miskin Mereka biasanya bekerja di rumah dalam kondisi yang tidak menguntungkan baik dari aktivitas pekerjaan dan lingkungan rumahnya tanpa perlindungan kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja seperti pekerja sector formal pada umumnya termasuk kondisi lingkungan rumah yang buruk. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat risiko bahaya tempat kerja dan lingkungan rumah terhadap kesehatan home-based worker di Kota Semarang.

Metode: Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian observasional dengan menggunakan desain cross sectional, yang dilakukan di 6 kecamatan di Kota Semarang. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 275 pekerja yang dipilih dengan metode Snowball Sampling. Analisis data dengan mengunakan chi-square.

Hasil: Kondisi lingkungan rumah yang buruk, seperti ventilasi 118 (42,9%), lantai 141 (51,3%) dan langit-langit rumah 209 (76%). Potensi bahaya fisik yang ditemukan dari aktivitas dan lingkungan kerja home-based worker adalah getaran dan radiasi, sedangkan bahaya kimia yang ada adalah debu. Gangguan kesehatan yang banyak timbul adalah pusing dan sakit kepala 139 (50,5%) pekerja, kesemutan 165 (60%) pekerja, sakit pada tulang dan otot 166 (60,4%) pekerja serta batuk dan sesak nafas 61 (27,2%) pekerja. Kondisi lingkungan rumah pekerja yang signifikan terhadap timbulnya gangguan kesehatan adalah kondisi lantai terhadap timbulnya batuk dan sesak nafas (p-value=0,0001) dan kondisi ventilasi rumah terhadap pusing dan sakit kepala (p-value=0,016).

Simpulan: Risiko bahaya pada home-based worker di Kota Semarang timbul dari kondisi lingkungan rumah seperti kondisi lantai rumah buruk terhadap timbulnya batuk dan sesak nafas dengan risiko 2,46 kali lebih besar dan kondisi ventilasi rumah yang buruk terhadap timbulnya pusing dan sakit kepala dengan risiko 1,35 kali lebih besar.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Risk Factors Workplace and Home Environment Hazards to Home-based Worker Health in Semarang

Background: Home-based workers is a common phenomenon in almost all countries. They usually work at home in unfavorable conditions both from their occupational activities and home environment without health and safety protection such as formal sector workers in general, including poor home environment conditions. This study aims to look at the risk of workplace and environmental hazards home to home-based health worker in Semarang.

Methods: The study was an observational using cross-sectional design, which was conducted in 6 districts in Semarang. The sample of research is 275 workers selected by Snowball Sampling method. Data were analyzed using chi-square. The research variables are workplace hazard and home environment condition as independent variable and health problem as dependent variable, as measured by interviews and observations.

Results: Poor home environment conditions, such as ventilation 118 (42.9%), floor 141 (51.3%) and 209 (76%) house ceiling. The potential physical hazards found in the activity and work environment of the home-based worker are vibration and radiation, while the chemical dangers are dust. The most common health problems were dizziness and headache 139 (50.5%) workers, tingling 165 (60%) workers, bone and muscle pain 166 (60.4%) workers and cough and breathlessness 61 (27.2 %) of workers. Worker's significant environmental condition for the occurrence of health problems is the condition of the floor to the occurrence of cough and shortness of breath (p-value = 0.0001) and the condition of home ventilation to dizziness and headache (p-value = 0,016).

Conclusion: Risk factors in home-based worker in Semarang arise from the condition of the home environment. Unsafe home floor conditions contribute 2.46 times greater risk for coughing and shortness of breath. Home ventilation conditions were <10% of the floor area contribute 1.35 times greater risk for dizziness and headache.

Keywords: home-based worker; bahaya lingkungan kerja; lingkungan rumah. (home-based worker; workplace hazar; home environment hazards)

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