skip to main content

The Role of Organizational Culture in Moderating Effect of Emotional Labor Strategies on Nursing Professionalism

*Resekiani Mas Bakar  -  Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Yaumil Khaerah  -  Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Nurul Hidayati  -  Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Andi Nasrawaty Hamid  -  Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Nurse Media Journal of Nursing
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

Background: Emotional labor strategies are necessary for nurses to provide nursing care for society through friendliness, caring, and positive emotion. The results of a meta-analysis of emotional labor research have proven that previous studies focused more on the impact of deep and surface acting strategies only at the individual level of the nurses. This study emphasizes the impact of emotional labor strategies at the individual and organizational levels.

Purpose: The study aimed to measure the effect of emotional labor strategy (surface and deep acting strategy) toward nursing professionalism mediated by organizational culture.

Methods: This research design is a quantitative survey. The respondents were 124 hospital nurses recruited by accidental sampling technique. The instrument in this study used emotional labor, organizational culture, and nursing professionalism scale. The mediation model technique by Hayes’s PROCESS was used to analyse the data.

Results: The result showed an indirect effect of the role of organizational culture in mediating deep acting strategy toward nursing professionalism (b=0.03, 95% CI [-0.00–0.94]). Nurses who displayed deep acting strategies to their patients indirectly affected professionalism through the mediation of organizational culture. However, the surface acting strategies did not show a significant effect on nursing professionalism (b=-0.02, 95% CI [-0.05–0.00]) .

Conclusion: Deep acting strategies indirectly affect nursing professionalism through organizational culture as a mediation variable compared to surface acting strategies. This study supports the control theory that emotional strategies implemented by nurses as organizational culture are a comparator to engage in nurse professionalism to provide healthcare. The deep acting strategies through organizational culture are essentially recommended for nurses in the hospital to improve their professionalism.
Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Deep acting; nursing professionalism; organizational culture; surface acting

Article Metrics:

  1. Akhtar-Danesh, N., Baumann, A., Kolotylo, C., Lawlor, Y., & Lee, R. (2013). Perceptions of professionalism among nursing faculty and nursing students. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 35(2), 248–271.
  2. Allen, J. A., Pugh, S. D., Grandey, A. A., & Groth, M. (2010). Following display rules in good or bad faith?: Customer orientation as a moderator of the display rule-emotional labor relationship. Human Performance 23(2), 101–115.
  3. Altuntaş, S., & Altun, Ö. Ş. (2015). The relationship between emotional labor behaviors and burnout levels of nurses. Journal of Health and Nursing Management, 2(1), 37–43.
  4. Bagdasarov, Z., & Connelly, S. (2015). Emotional labor among healthcare professionals: The effects are undeniable. Narative Inquiry in Bioethics, 3(2), 125–129.
  5. Bunkenborg, G., Samuelson, K., Jonas, A., & Poulsen, I. (2012). Impact of professionalism in nursing on in-hospital bedside monitoring practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(7), 1–12.
  6. Carver, C. S. (2018). Control theory, goal attainment, and psychopathology. Psychological Inquiry, 29(3), 139–144.
  7. Choi, S. W., & Guy, M. E. (2020). The link between emotional labor and organizational culture in Korean bureaucracy: how taxing is tax work? How enforcing is law enforcement? International Review of Public Administration, 25(2), 129–144.
  8. Diefendorff, J. M., Erickson, R. J., Grandey, A. A., & Dahling, J. J. (2011). Emotional display rules as work unit norms: A multilevel analysis of emotional labor among nurses. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(2), 170–186.
  9. Diefendorff, J. M., & Gosserand, R. H. (2003). Understanding the emotional labor process: A control theory perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(8), 945–959.
  10. Field, A. P. (2014). Skills in Mathematics and statistics in psychology and tackling transition. The Higher Educatiom Academy
  11. Ghadirian, F., Salsali, M., & Cheraghi, M. A. (2014). Nursing: An evolutionary concept analysis. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 19(1), 1–10
  12. Ghalandari, K., Mortazavi, S., Abbasi, S., Ghorbani, M., & Jogh, G. (2012). The effect of emotional labor on emotional exhaustion in banking services: The role of Iranian emotional intelligence. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 4(12), 1794–1800
  13. Gosserand, R. H., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2005). Emotional display rules and emotional labor: The moderating role of commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1256–1264.
  14. Grandey, A. A., & Melloy, R. C. (2017). The state of the heart: Emotional labor as emotion regulation reviewed and revised. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(3), 407–422.
  15. Grandey, A. A., & Sayre, G. M. (2019). Emotional labor: Regulating emotions for a wage. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28(2), 131–137.
  16. Gray, B. (2010). Emotional labour, gender and professional stereotypes of emotional and physical contact, and personal perspectives on the emotional labour of nursing. Journal of Gender Studies, 19(4), 349–360.
  17. Han, S. S., Han, J. W., & Kim, Y. H. (2018). Effect of nurses’ emotional labor on customer orientation and service delivery: The mediating effects of work engagement and burnout. Safety and Health at Work, 9(4), 441–446.
  18. Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis, second edition: A regression-based approach. The Guildford Press
  19. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. University of California Press
  20. Jafree, S. R., Zakar, R., Zakar, M. Z., & Fischer, F. (2016). Nurse perceptions of organizational culture and its association with the culture of error reporting: A case of public sector hospitals in Pakistan. BMC Health Services Research, 16, 3.
  21. Jang, I., Kim, Y., & Kim, K. (2016). Professionalism and professional quality of life for oncology nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25(19), 1–11.
  22. Jeung, D. Y., Kim, C., & Chang, S. J. (2018). Emotional labor and burnout: A review of the literature. Yonsei Medical Journal 59(2), 187–193).
  23. Kamel, F. F., & Aref, M. A. E. (2017). Staff nurses perception toward organizational culture and its relation to innovative work behavior at critical care units. American Journal of Nursing Science, 6(3).
  24. Kim, J. S. (2020). Emotional labor strategies, stress, and burnout among hospital nurses: A path analysis. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 52(1), 105–112.
  25. Kim, Y. I., Geun, H. G., Choi, S., & Lee, Y. S. (2016). The impact of organizational commitment and nursing organizational culture on job satisfaction in Korean American registered nurses. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 28(6), 1–8.
  26. Koh, M. S., Lee, H. Z., & Kim, M. J. (2018). Convergence research on emotional labor, professionalism, social support, and performance of nurses in clinical field. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 9(8), 343–353.
  27. Lee, E., & Jang, I. (2020). Nurses’ fatigue, job stress, organizational culture, and turnover intention: A culture–work–health model. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 42(2), 108–116.
  28. Lee, L., & Madera, J. M. (2019). A systematic literature review of emotional labor research from the hospitality and tourism literature. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(7), 2808–2826.
  29. Liu, H., Zou, H. Y., Wang, H. J., Xu, X., & Liao, J. Q. (2020). Do emotional labour strategies influence emotional exhaustion and professional identity or vice versa? Evidence from new nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 76(2), 577–587.
  30. Lombarts, K. M. J. M. H., Plochg, T., Thompson, C. A., & Arah, O. A. (2014). Measuring professionalism in medicine and nursing: Results of a European survey. PLoS ONE, 9(5),e97069.
  31. Manley, K., Sanders, K., Cardiff, S., & Webster, J. (2011). Effective workplace culture: The attributes, enabling factors and consequences of a new concept. International Practice Development Journal, 1(2), 1–29
  32. Manojlovich, M., & Ketefian, S. (2002). The effects of organizational culture on nursing professionalism: Implications for health resource planning. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 33(4), 15–34
  33. Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2017). Situasi tenaga keperawatan Indonesia [The situation of nursing personnel]. Misnistry of Health Republic of Indonesia.
  34. Pedrosa, J., Sousa, L., Valentim, O., & Antunes, V. (2021). Organizational culture and nurse’s turnover: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Healthcare Management 14(4), 1542–1550.
  35. Primm, R. D. (2010). Professionalism among occupational health nurses. Professional Practice, 58(7), 281–283.
  36. Sarıköse, S., & Göktepe, N. (2022). Effects of nurses’ individual, professional and work environment characteristics on job performance. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 31(5–6), 633–641.
  37. Sass, J. S. (2000). Emotional labor as cultural performance: The communication of caregiving in a nonprofit nursing home. Western Journal of Communication, 64(3), 330–358.
  38. Scott-Findlay, S., & Estabrooks, C. A. (2006). Mapping the organizational culture research in nursing: A literature review. Integrative Literature Reviews and Meta-Analysis, 56(5), 498–513.
  39. Solomon, Y., Beker, J., & Belachew, T. (2015). Nursing and care professionalism and its predictors among nurses working in Jimma zone public. Journal of Nursing Care, 4(5), 1–9.
  40. Stock, G. N., Mcfadden, K. L., & Iii, C. R. G. (2017). Organizational culture, knowledge management, and patient safety in U.S Hospitals. Quality Management Journal, 17(2), 7–27.
  41. Tanaka, M., Taketomi, K., Yonemitsu, Y., & Kawamoto, R. (2014). Professional behaviours and factors contributing to nursing professionalism among nurse managers. Journal of Nursing Management, 24(1), 12–20.
  42. Wanninayake, S. D. K., O’Donnell, M. E., & Williamson, S. (2021). Caring with a forced smile: Emotional labour among private hospital nurses in Sri Lanka. South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management, 8(2), 219–239.
  43. World Health Organization. (2022). Nursing and midwifery. World Health Organization International. all countries to reach,delivering primary and community care
  44. Yeun, Y., & Han, J. (2016). Effect of nurses’ organizational culture, workplace bullying, and work burnout on turnover intention. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology, 8(1), 372–380.
  45. Zaghini, F., Biagioli, V., Proietti, M., Badolamenti, S., Fiorini, J., & Sili, A. (2020). The role of occupational stress in the association between emotional labor and burnout in nurses: A cross-sectional study. Applied Nursing Research, 54, 151277.

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-07-15 01:51:50

No citation recorded.