skip to main content

Factors Affecting the Quality of Life of Older People during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Mei Rianita Elfrida Sinaga  -  Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Bethesda Yakkum, Indonesia
Susi Roida Simanjuntak  -  Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Indonesia
*Rozzano C. Locsin orcid scopus  -  Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Professor Emeritus, Tokushima University Japan, Japan
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Nurse Media Journal of Nursing
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
Abstract

Background: Changes that occur in the life of older people during the COVID-19 pandemic present many challenges towards achieving better quality of life  However, only a limited number of studies that evaluate factors affecting the quality of life of older people during the COVID-19 pandemic are available.

Purpose: This study aimed to identify the quality of life and factors affecting the quality of life of older people during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design using anonymous online questionnaires of 208 respondents who were selected using purposive sampling. This study was conducted during September to December 2020 in North Sumatra and Yogyakarta provinces. The QoL was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire in the Indonesian version. The descriptive statistics were calculated for socio-demographics, while their association with quality of life was analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistics. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the predictor factors affecting the quality of life of older people.

Results: The results of the study showed that the mean and standard deviation for physical domain factors was 64.46(11.81); 64.61(11.98) for the psychological domain; 64.85(12.81) for the social domain, and 61.08(13.01) for the environmental domain. Factors significantly associated with the quality of life included age, retirement, living situation, health insurance, and medical history (p<0.05). However, the predictor factor affecting the quality of life of older people during the COVID-19 pandemic was medical history (β-value=0.25).

Conclusion: Predictor factor affected the quality of life was medical history. The study suggests the government and health care professionals, specifically community health nurses, to promote the utilization of Integrated Elderly Health Service (IEHS) among older adults and families to maintain the quality of health.
Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic; medical history; older people; predictor factor; quality of life

Article Metrics:

  1. Algahtani, F. D., Hassan, S. U. N., Alsaif, B., & Zrieq, R. (2021). Assessment of the quality of life during Covid-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional survey from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3), 1–12
  2. Andesty, D., & Syahrul, F. (2018). Hubungan interaksi sosial dengan kualitas hidup lansia di Unit Pelayanan Terpadu (UPTD) Griya Werdha Kota Surabaya Tahun 2017 [The relationship of social interaction with the quality of life of the elderly in the Integrated Service Unit (UPTD) Griya Werdh. The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, 13(2), 169–180. https://doi.org/10.20473/ijph.vl13il.2018.169-180
  3. Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Older adults. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html
  5. Ch Salim, O., Sudharma, N. I., Kusumaratna, R. K., & Hidayat, A. (2007). Validity and reliability of World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF to assess the quality of life in the elderly. Universa Medicina, 26(1), 27–38
  6. Courtin, E., & Knapp, M. (2017). Social isolation, loneliness and health in old age: A scoping review. Health and Social Care in the Community, 25(3), 799–812. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12311
  7. Damiot, A., Pinto, A. J., Turner, J. E., & Gualano, B. (2020). Immunological implications of physical inactivity among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Gerontology, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1159/000509216
  8. De Medeiros, M. M. D., Carletti, T. M., Magno, M. B., Maia, L. C., Cavalcanti, Y. W., & Rodrigues-Garcia, R. C. M. (2020). Does the institutionalization influence elderly’s quality of life? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatrics, 20(1), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-1452-0
  9. Guida, C., & Carpentieri, G. (2021). Quality of life in the urban environment and primary health services for the elderly during the Covid-19 pandemic: An application to the city of Milan (Italy). Cities, 110(April 2020), 103038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.103038
  10. Han, K. T., Park, E. C., Kim, J. H., Kim, S. J., & Park, S. (2014). Is marital status associated with quality of life? Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-014-0109-0
  11. Indrayani, & Ronoatmodjo, S. (2018). Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kualitas hidup lansia di Desa Cipasung Kabupaten Kuningan Tahun 2017 [Factors related to the quality of life of the elderly in Cipasung Village, Kuningan Regency in 2017]. Jurnal Kesehatan Reproduksi, 9(1), 69–78. https://doi.org/10.22435/kespro.v9i1.892.69-78
  12. Jiménez-Pavón, D., Carbonell-Baeza, A., & Lavie, C. J. (2020). Physical exercise as therapy to fight against the mental and physical consequences of COVID-19 quarantine: Special focus in older people. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 63(3), 386–388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2020.03.009
  13. Jing, W., Willis, R., & Feng, Z. (2016). Factors influencing quality of life of elderly people with dementia and care implications: A systematic review. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 66, 23–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2016.04.009
  14. Kiik, S. M., Sahar, J., & Permatasari, H. (2018). Peningkatan kualitas hidup lanjut usia (Lansia) di kota Depok dengan latihan keseimbangan [Improving the quality of life of the elderly (elderly) in Depok city with balance exercises]. Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 21(2), 109–116. https://doi.org/10.7454/jki.v21i2.584
  15. Kim, J., & Lee, J. E. (2018). Social support and health-related quality of life among elderly individuals living alone in South Korea: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Nursing Research, 26(5), 316–323. https://doi.org/10.1097/jnr.0000000000000241
  16. Klompstra, L., Ekdahl, A. W., Krevers, B., Milberg, A., & Eckerblad, J. (2019). Factors related to health-related quality of life in older people with multimorbidity and high health care consumption over a two-year period. BMC Geriatrics, 19(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1194-z
  17. Kumar, G., Majumdar, A., & Pavithra, G. (2014). Quality of Life ( QOL ) and Its Associated Factors Using WHOQOL-BREF Among Elderly in Urban Puducherry, India. June 2013. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/6996.3917
  18. Kundari, N. F., Hanifah, W., Azzahra, G. A., Islam, N. R. Q., & Nisa, H. (2020). Hubungan dukungan sosial dan keterpaparan media sosial terhadap perilaku pencegahan COVID-19 pada komunitas wilayah Jabodetabek tahun 2020 [The relationship of social support and social media exposure to COVID-19 prevention behavior in the Jabodetabek are. Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, 30(4), 281–294. https://doi.org/10.22435/mpk.v30i4.3463
  19. Kuok, K. C. ., Li, L., Xiang, Y.-T., Nogueira, B. O. . L., Ungvari, G. S., Ng, C. H., Chiu, H. F. ., Tran, L., & Meng, L.-R. (2017). Quality of life and clinical correlates in older adults living in the community and in nursing homes in Macao. Psychogeriatrics, 17(3), 194–199. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12214
  20. Kwon, M., Kim, S. A., & So, W. Y. (2020). Factors influencing the quality of life of Korean elderly women by economic status. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030888
  21. Levkovich, I., Shinan-Altman, S., Essar Schvartz, N., & Alperin, M. (2021). Depression and health-related quality of life among elderly patients during the Covid-19 pandemic in Israel: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Primary Care and Community Health, 12, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/2150132721995448
  22. Margaretha, C., Sarjana, W., Suharto, & Jusup, I. (2021). Relationship between quality of life, depression, and participation in elderly integrated health service post among older adults. Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 11(2), 144–153. https://doi.org/10.14710/nmjn.v11i2.33500
  23. Mehra, A., Rani, S., Sahoo, S., Parveen, S., Singh, A. P., Chakrabarti, S., & Grover, S. (2020). A crisis for elderly with mental disorders: Relapse of symptoms due to heightened anxiety due to COVID-19. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(April), 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102114
  24. National Institute on Aging. (2019, April 23). Social isolation, loneliness in older people pose health risks. https://www.nia.nih.gov/news/social-isolation-loneliness-older-people-pose-health-risks
  25. Onunkwor, O. F., Al-dubai, S. A. R., George, P. P., Arokiasamy, J., Yadav, H., Barua, A., & Shuaibu, H. O. (2016). A cross-sectional study on quality of life among the elderly in non-governmental organizations’ elderly homes in Kuala Lumpur. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 14(6), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-016-0408-8
  26. Purba, F. D., Hunfeld, J. A. M., Iskandarsyah, A., Fitriana, T. S., Sadarjoen, S. S., Passchier, J., & Busschbach, J. J. V. (2018). Quality of life of the Indonesian general population: Test-retest reliability and population norms of the EQ-5D-5L and WHOQOL-BREF. PLoS ONE, 13(5), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197098
  27. Putri, S. T., Fitriana, L. A., Ningrum, A., & Sulastri, A. (2015). Studi komparatif: Kualitas hidup lansia yang tinggal bersama keluarga dan panti [Comparative study: quality of life of elderly people living with families and nursing homes]. Jurnal Pendidikan Keperawatan Indonesia, 1(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.17509/jpki.v1i1.1178
  28. Research Center for Population of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences. (2020). Menelaah program lansia di Indonesia [Studying elderly programs in Indonesia]. Kependudukan.Lipi.Go.Id. https://kependudukan.lipi.go.id/id/kajian-kependudukan/keluarga-kesehatan/532-menelaah-program-lansia-di-indonesia
  29. Safitri, N. (2018). Masalah kesehatan pada lansia [Health problems in the elderly]. Director General of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. http://www.yankes.kemkes.go.id/read-masalah-kesehatan-pada-lansia-4884.html
  30. Sahoo, H., Govil, D., James, K. S., & Prasad, R. D. (2021). Health issues, health care utilization and health care expenditure among elderly in India: Thematic review of literature. Aging and Health Research, 1(2), 100012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahr.2021.100012
  31. Saraiva, M. D., Apolinario, D., Avelino-Silva, T. J., De Assis Moura Tavares, C., Gattás-Vernaglia, I. F., Marques Fernandes, C., Rabelo, L. M., Tavares Fernandes Yamaguti, S., Karnakis, T., Kalil-Filho, R., Jacob-Filho, W., & Romero Aliberti, M. J. (2021). The impact of frailty on the relationship between life-space mobility and uuality of life in older adults during the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, 25(4), 440–447. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-020-1532-z
  32. Siette, J., Dodds, L., Seaman, K., Wuthrich, V., Johnco, C., Earl, J., Dawes, P., & Westbrook, J. I. (2021). The impact of Covid-19 on the quality of life of older adults receiving community-based aged care. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 40(1), 84–89. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajag.12924
  33. Sunaryo, Wijayanti, R., Kuhu, M. M., Sumedi, T., Widayanti, E. D., Sukrillah, U. A., Riyadi, S., & Kuswati, A. (2016). Asuhan keperawatan gerontik [gerontic nursing care] (P. Christian (ed.); Ed. I). ANDI
  34. Tel, H. (2013). Sleep quality and quality of life among the elderly people. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 19(1), 48–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.npbr.2012.10.002
  35. The Central Bureau of Statistics. (2020). Statistik penduduk lanjut usia 2020 [The elderly population statistics 2020]. Badan Pusat Statistik. www.bps.go.id
  36. The Task Force for the Acceleration of Handling Covid-19. (2020). Peta sebaran [Distribution map]. Covid-19.Go.Id. https://covid19.go.id/peta-sebaran
  37. Touhy, T. A., & Jett, K. F. (2018). Gerontological Nursing & Healthy Aging (5th Ed). Elsevier
  38. Uddin, M. A., Soivong, P., Lasuka, D., & Juntasopeepun, P. (2018). Factors influencing quality of life of older persons in Bangladesh. MOJ Gerontology & Geriatrics, 3(2), 203–207. https://doi.org/10.15406/mojgg.2018.03.00115
  39. Vagetti, G. C., Barbosa Filho, V. C., Moreira, N. B., de Oliveira, V., Mazzardo, O., & de Campos, W. (2014). Association between physical activity and quality of life in the elderly: A systematic review, 2000-2012. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 36(1), 76–88. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2012-0895
  40. Van Biljon, L., Nel, P., & Roos, V. (2015). A partial validation of the WHOQOL-OLD in a sample of older people in South Africa. Global Health Action, 8(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v8.28209
  41. World Health Organization. (2020a). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
  42. World Health Organization. (2020b). Older people and COVID-19. https://www.who.int/teams/social-determinants-of-health/covid-19
  43. Yuan, Y., Li, J., Jing, Z., Yu, C., Zhao, D., Hao, W., & Zhou, C. (2020). The role of mental health and physical activity in the association between sleep quality and quality of life among rural elderly in China: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Affective Disorders, 273(February), 462–467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.05.093
  44. Zhang, Y., & Ma, Z. F. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and quality of life among local residents in Liaoning Province, China: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072381

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.