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Kinerja Pemberlakuan Standar Mutu Perkerasan pada Peningkatan dan Pemeliharaan Jalan Nasional – Propinsi

*Agus Taufik Mulyono  -  Jurusan Teknik Sipil dan Lingkungan, Indonesia

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Abstract

National and provincial road networks are a part of transportation infrastructure having very significant role for improving economic condition of a region due to its potential for providing wider mobility and higher accessibility between nodes in the region than district road networks. Consequently, the development of national and provincial roads should be based on tight implementation of quality standard for achieving stable road pavement. However, in current practices, there are evidences indicating no correlation between increased investment on national and provincial roads with the improved road quality in various regions though the road development uses an identical standard of quality manual. It is, therefore, very important to study performance of the quality manual standard implementation on road maintenance and betterment. The objectives of the research are to identify underlying problems and inappropriate practices of implementation procedure of pavement quality standard and to understand root causes of road deterioration occurred before the expected period of its life service. The research used a questionnaire survey completed objectively by respondents as with their expertise and experiences on road engineering. The respondents consist of 251 practitioners and experts selected through purposive method from 28 provinces representing the government staff of Public Work Department, supervision and consulting engineers, contractors and academic staff of universities. Furthermore, the questionnaires were compiled and analyzed by using descriptive statistical method. Findings of the research show that the underlying problems of the implementation of quality manual standards are predominated by low quality of human resources, inadequate utilization of testing instrument, and insufficient understanding of quality standards as well as poor coordination between implementation and supervision institutions. The substandard quality of road pavement mainly occurred due to low quality of the materials, inappropriate method of quality testing, improper construction method and insufficient field supervision. It was found that pavement deterioration in the beginning of road operation period is not caused by overloaded traffic but mainly due to inappropriate implementation of quality standards. This is regarded as no proper socialization of quality standards by government institutions for engineers, contractors and supervisors and their understanding on the road development is only focused on contract documents.

Keywords: quality standard, implementation, road pavement, road maintenance, road betterment

ABSTRAK

Penanganan jalan nasional dan propinsi tidak terlepas dari penerapan standar mutu untuk mencapai kualitas perkerasan jalan yang mantap. Jalan nasional dan propinsi memiliki peranan yang amat penting terhadap peningkatan ekonomi wilayah karena berfungsi menyediakan mobilitas dan aksesibilitas antar simpul wilayah yang lebih luas daripada jalan kabupaten. Pada saat ini,  fakta mengindikasikan tidak adanya korelasi antara peningkatan investasi penanganan jalan nasional dan propinsi dengan peningkatan kemantapan perkerasan jalan meskipun standar mutu perkerasan yang digunakan sama, sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian kinerja pemberlakuan standar mutu perkerasan pada peningkatan dan pemeliharaan jalan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendeskripsiskan kendala dan penyimpangan pemberlakuan standar mutu perkerasan jalan serta penyebab kerusakan jalan yang sering terjadi di bawah umur pelayanan. Instrumen penelitian berupa formulir survai (kuesioner) yang harus diisi secara obyektif dengan memepertimbangkan kepakaran dan pengalaman responden  di bidang teknik jalan. Responden terdiri dari para pakar (expert) yang ditentukan secara purposive yang tersebar di 28 propinsi pada instansi kantor P2JJ dan litbang, kantor dinas pekerjaan umum, konsultan supervisi, kontraktor dan perguruan tinggi. Selanjutnya data terkumpul dikompilasi dan dianalisis secara statistik deskriptif. Jumlah responden (pakar) yang mengisi formulir survai sebanyak 251 orang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kendala implementasi standar mutu didominasi oleh kekurangan kualitas SDM, keterbatasan utilisasi alat uji, kesulitan memahami substansi standar mutu, dan lemahnya koordinasi antara pelaksana pekerjaan dan pengawas mutu. Selain itu disimpulkan penyimpangan mutu perkerasan yang sering terjadi adalah: (i) mutu material kurang tepat; (ii) metode pengujian mutu kurang tepat; dan (iii) prosedur implementasi metode pelaksanaan dan pengawasan di lapangan tidak tepat. Penyebab kerusakan perkerasan jalan pada awal operasional, tidak semata-mata disebabkan oleh kendaraan overloading tetapi lebih didominasi tidak tercapainya pemberlakuan (implementasi) standar mutu yang tepat di lapangan. Permasalahan lainnya adalah kurangnya sosialisasi standar mutu yang dilakukan oleh instansi pembina terhadap pelaksana dan pengawas mutu di daerah dan pemahaman mereka terbatas pada dokumen kontrak.

Kata kunci: standar mutu, pemberlakuan, perkerasan jalan, pemeliharaan jalan, peningkatan jalan

Permalink: http://www.ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/mkts/article/view/3956

[How to cite: Mulyono, A.T., 2006, Kinerja Pemberlakuan Standar Mutu Perkerasan pada Peningkatan dan Pemeliharaan Jalan Nasional – Propinsi, Jurnal Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil, Volume 14, Nomor 3, pp. 309-328]

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Keywords: standar mutu, pemberlakuan, perkerasan jalan, pemeliharaan jalan, peningkatan jalan

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