Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Kejadian Filariasis Di Kecamatan Buaran Kabupaten Pekalongan

Suryo Sularno


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/jkli.16.1.22-28

Abstract


Latar belakang: Filariasis merupakan salah satu penyakit infeksi, disebabkan oleh cacing filaria yang hidup di kelenjar limfa dan darah manusia, termasuk penyakit tular vektor. Kecamatan Buaran Kabupaten Pekalongan merupakan daerah endemis filariasis tinggi dengan mf rate 3,9%, Selain itu, hasil survei darah jari yang pernah dilakukan, di wilayah ini ditemukan 37 orang positif mikrofilaria dalam darahnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan faktor lingkungan dan perilaku masyarakat sebagai faktor risiko kejadian filariasis di Kecamatan Buaran kabupaten Pekalongan.

Materi dan Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan disain kasus kontrol. Subyek penelitian dibagi menjadi kelompok kasus dan kelompok kontrol masing-masing 74 orang. Variabel bebas yang dikaji dalam penelitian ini adalah spesies keberadaan nyamuk di dalam dan luar rumah, kawat kasa, persawahan, saluran air, genangan air, tumbuhan air, dan ternak. Faktor perilaku meliputi kebiasaan penggunaan kelambu, menggantung pakaian, penggunaan obat anti nyamuk, keluar ada malam hari, pengetahuan dan layanan kesehatan. Variabel terikatnya adalah kejadian filariasis. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara, observasi, dan penangkapan nyamuk. Analisis data hasil penelitian menggunakan regresi logistik.

Hasil: Dari 17 variabel bebas yang dikaji, hasil penelitian ini menemukan ada tiga variabel yang mempunyai asosiasi signifikan dengan kejadian filatiasis di Kecamatan Buaran Kabupaten Pekalongan. Variabel tersebut meliputi tinggal di sekitar rumah penderita, kepadatan hunian, dan kepatuhan minum obat. Hasil analisis regresi logistik menunjukkan bahwa kepadatan hunian merupakan faktor yang paling dominan pengaruhnya terhadap kejadian filariasis dengan OR=6,145 (CI:1,051 – 35,938).

Simpulan: Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa tinggal di sekitar rumah penderita, kepadatan hunian dan kepatuhan minum obat filariais mempunyai kontribusi terhadap kejadian filariasis. Peneliti menyarankan upaya perbaikan lingkungan yang sehat dan kepatuhan minum obat oleh masyarakat perlu diupayakan semaksimal mungkin guna menekan kejadian penyakit tersebut di masa mendatang.

 

Abstract

Title: Factors Related toThe Incidence of Lymphatic Fillariasis in Buaran, Pekalongan District

Background: Filariasis or elephansiasis is one of infectious disease, is a systemic infection caused by filarial worms that live in the lymph nodes (lymph) and human blood that transmitted by mosquitoes (vector-borne disease). The survey result endemicity of filariasis in 2007 found that the highest area was in Buaran District with the number of microfilariae (mf) rate of 3.9% and according to the data Filariasis Research 2015, the result of Finger-prick Blood in Subdistrict Buaran discovery of microfilariae are 37 people. Based on this fact the purpose of this research is to describe environmental condition and behaviour society as a risk factor for the incidence of filariasis in Subdistrict Buaran Pekalongan regency.

Method: This study was observational study with case control design. The subjects consisted of two groups of case and control, with each sample of 74 people. The independent variables studied were the vectors inside and outside the home existing, marshes existing, rice fields existing, trenches existing, ditches, puddles, aquatic plants existing, bushes existing, cattle existing, wire netting on the ventilation esiting, the habit of using nets, habits of hanging clothes have been used, the habit of using anti-mosquito drugs, the habit outdoors at night, knowledge and health efforts. While the dependent variable was the incidence of filariasis. Data was collected through interviews, observation, and measurement. Data would be analyzed using univariate, bivariate chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression at level of significance 0.05 (5%).

Result: Bivariate analyze of 17 variables are the vectors inside and outside the home existing, marshes existing, rice fields existing, trenches existing, ditches, puddles, aquatic plants existing, bushes existing, cattle existing, wire netting on the ventilation esiting, the habit of using nets, habits of hanging clothes have been used, the habit of using anti-mosquito drugs, the habit outdoors at night, knowledge and health efforts, indicated that there were three variables that have a correlation to incidence of filariasis. They were staying or being around filariasis sufferers, density residential, and medication adherence. Results of multivariate analysis that density residential is the most dominant factor related to the incidence of filariasis with p-value = 0.044; OR = 6,145 (1,051 - 35,938).

Conclusion: This study concluded that environment factors need to be improved, especially for staying or being around filariasis sufferers, density residential, and medication adherence to reduce fillariasis incident.


Keywords


Faktor lingkungan dan perilaku; filariasis; Buaran Pekalongan. (Environment and behaviour factors; Filariasis; Buaran Pekalongan)

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