The Applicative Constructions in Javanese Dialect of Kudus
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This paper presents a descriptive analysis of applicative constructions in the Javanese Dialect of Kudus (JDK). The people of Kudus, are largerly bilingual in Indonesian and Javanese. However, Indonesian has become the favoured language and JDK is considered inferior, a mark of a lack of education and a lower status in society. This situation does not encourage the study of dialect. Therefore, a corpus was constructed in a fieldwork in Kudus, sampling three genres: spontaneous conversation, elicited spoken narratives, and newspaper articles. The spoken corpus were collected from native speakers of JDK. The results indicate the existence of two distinct constructions, one marked by –i and one marked by either standard –(a)ke or dialectal –na. Generally –i occurs more frequently than –na and –(a)ke, but the relative prominence of the other two markers –na and –(a)ke is not consistent. This might be a genre effect that occurs in these three corpora. There appears to be a conscious selection of the dialect-marked form –na by the writer of the articles (a feature of dialect is used heavily in writing on purpose). By contrast there are no instances of –(a)ke in the written corpus. Thus, the non-standard –na is infrequent in the two spoken corpora and frequent in the written corpus. This study also demonstrates that adult speakers use –na twice as frequently as do the younger speakers. By contrast –(a)ke is used more frequently by younger speakers than adult speakers. The marker –i is used with approximately the same frequency by both age groups. However, the preference of the youngers for the standard variant is highly suggestive despite not being significant. The younger group were learning Standard Javanese in their school. This might affect the selection of the standard form rather than the dialect.
Applicative, Grammar, Corpus, Javanese Dialect of Kudus