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Author Guidelines

The Board of Editors is pleased to invite you to publish your papers in our journal which is published twice a year (April and October). The following are terms and conditions of publishing with PAROLE Journal of Linguistics and Education:

General Author Guidelines

  1. The manuscript has not yet been published elsewhere, including in conference proceedings by giving a written statement from the contributor that the article sent does not contain plagiarism.
  2. The Article Template can be downloaded here: [Manuscript Template].
  3. The full manuscript is written in good English (American or British style is accepted, but not a mixture of these) and sent to the Board of Editors by online submission and review web site or who have other circumstances that prevent online submission must contact the Editors prior to submission to discuss alternative options email:
  4. After this submission, Authors who submit the manuscript will get a confirmation email about the submission. Therefore, Authors are able to track their submission status at any time by logging in to the online submission interface. The submission tracking includes a status of manuscript review and editorial process.

Font and Spacing

The manuscript should be typed in Times New Roman with MS Word, top and bottom margin 2.54 cm, left and right margin 1.91 cm, single spaced on quarto (size A4). The manuscript should be between 5,000 and 8,000 words in length, including references, and tables/ figures.


Quotations should be integrated in the text, except for those exceeding 3 lines. Separate quotations should be formatted with Left Indent: 0.5 and Right Indent: 0.5, without quotation marks.

Bullets and Numbering

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Bullet and numbering within body text are not recommended. All sentences should be typed as descriptive paragraphs.


Tables are sequentially numbered with the table title and number above the table (11pt). Tables should be centered in the column OR on the page. Tables should be followed by a line space. Elements of a table should be single-spaced (9pt). However, double spacing can be used to show groupings of data or to separate parts within the table. Table headings should be horizontal in 9pt. Tables are referred in the text by the table number, e.g., Table 1. Do not show the vertical line in the table. There is only horizontal line should be shown in the table, as well as table heading.

Figures and Charts

Figures and charts are sequentially numbered commencing at 1, for example, with the figure/chart title and number below the figure/chart as shown in Figure 1/Chart Detailed recommendations for figures and charts are as follows:

  1. Ensure that figures and charts are clear and legible with typed letterings.
  2. Black & white or colored figures and charts are allowed.
  3. If a figure or chart spans two columns, it should be placed at the bottom of a page.

Structure of the manuscript

Structure of the manuscript consists of three parts:

1. The Essential Title Page Information (one-colloum)

  • Title: Identify the main issue of the article. Begin with the subject of the article. The title should be accurate, unambiguous, specific, and complete. Do not contain infrequently-used abbreviations. The title of the paper should be in max 20 words, 18pt, no bold, Title Case, center.
  • Author Name: Write Author(s) names without a title and professional positions such as Prof, Dr, Production Manager, etc. Do not abbreviate your last/family name. Always give your First and Last names. The author name of the paper should be in 14pt, no bold, Capitalize Each Word, center.
  • Affiliation and Address: Write clear affiliation of all Authors. Affiliation includes a name of university, address, country. Please indicate Corresponding Author (include email address) by adding an asterisk (*) in superscript behind the name. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes. The Affiliation and Address name of the paper should be in 9pt, italic, no bold, center.
  • e-mail addresses: Write all of the author's email in footnote 9pt (Calibri font) followed by an initial of the authors except the last name in bracket. For example: (D. Nirmala).

2. Abstract and keywords (right-colloum)

  • The Abstract: (10pt) a concise and factual abstract is required (of between 100-200 words): The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s).
  • Keywords: (10pt) Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

3. Content of Articles (one-colloum)

The Content of articles (11pt) is divided into:

  • INTRODUCTION (15-20% of the total article length)

    Authors should state the objectives of the work at the end of introduction section. Before the objective, Authors should provide an adequate background, and very short literature survey in order to record the existing solutions/method, to show which is the best of previous studies, to show the main limitation of the previous research, to show what you hope to achieve (to solve the limitation) and to show what scientific merit or novelties of your paper is. Avoid a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Do not describe literature survey as author by author, but should be presented as group per method or topic reviewed which refers to some literatures.

    Example of novelty statement or the gap analysis statement in the end of Introduction section (after state of the art of previous research survey): “........ (short summary of background)....... A few researchers focused on ....... There have been limited studies concerned on ........ Therefore, this research intends to ................. The objectives of this research are .........”.

  • METHODS (10-15% of the total article length)

    The research method for research-based articles consists of description concerning the research design, data sources, data collection, and data analysis.

  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (40-60% of the total article length)

    Results should be clear and concise. The results should summarize (scientific) findings rather than providing data in great detail. Please highlight differences between your results or findings and the previous publications by other researchers. The discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    In discussion, it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Make the discussion corresponding to the results, but do not reiterate the results. Often should begin with a brief summary of the main scientific findings (not experimental results).

    The following components should be covered in discussion: How do your results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section (what/how)? Do you provide interpretation scientifically for each of your results or findings presented (why)? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported (what else)? Or are there any differences?

  • CONCLUSION (5-10% of the total article length)

    Conclusions should answer the objectives of the research. Tells how your work advances the field from the present state of knowledge. Without clear Conclusions, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge the work, and whether or not it merits publication in the journal. Do not repeat the Abstract, or just list experimental results. Provide a clear scientific justification for your work, and indicate possible applications and extensions. You should also suggest future experiments and/or point out those that are underway.

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (5-10% of the total article length)

    Recognize those who helped in the research, especially funding supporter of your research. Include individuals who have assisted you in your study: Advisors, Financial supporters, or may another supporter, i.e. Proofreaders, Typists, and Suppliers, who may have given materials. Do not acknowledge one of the authors names.

  • REFERENCES (10-15% of the total article length)

    Primarily taken from journals and in the last 10 years of publication. Management reference application, such as MendeleyZotero or Endnote, should be used by authors when citing a reference and creating the bibliography in the manuscript. The reference and citation should be APA (American Psychological Association) style. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list. The in-text citation for instance, (Levinson, 1987); ...Chomsky (2009); (Aronoff & Fudemen, 2011); ...Hariyono & Carthy (2008); Arifin et al. (2012); (Isnawati et al., 2015) and please hyperlink to references with bookmark. The References with hanging indent and align left, for instance,

Book – One Author

[1]        Aronsson, L. (2000). The development of sustainable tourism. London, England: Continuum.


Book – Two Authors

[2]        Cushing, C. E., & Allan, J. D. (2001). Streams: Their ecology and life. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.


Book – Three to Five Authors

[3]        Hayes, S. C., Stosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.


Editor and no Author

[4]          Carlock, C. J. (Ed.). (1999). Enhancing self-esteem (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Accelerated Development.


Chapter or Section of a Book – with an author

[5]        Regulus, T. A. (1995). Gang violence. In R. L. Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1045–1055). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.


Chapter or Section of a Book – no author

[6]        Anderson, K. N., Anderson, L. E., & Glanze, W. D. (Eds.). (1994). Subcutaneous injection. In Mosby's medical, nursing, and allied health dictionary (4th ed., p. 1497). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.


Journal Article (Print)

~ If each issue of a volume begins on page 1 or you are unsure, then include the issue number in parenthesis after the volume number (e.g., 285(5)).


[7]        Koopman, W. J. (2001). Prospects for autoimmune disease: Research advances in rheumatoid arthritis. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 648–650.


Journal Article from Publisher Web Site (article with no DOI)

~ Include print information, followed by the URL of the journal’s homepage.


[8]        Koopman, W. J. (2001). Prospects for autoimmune disease: Research advances in rheumatoid arthritis. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 648–650. Retrieved from http://jama


Full Text Article with Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

~ For more on a DOI, go to:

~ If authors number eight or more, use the first six names, then insert three ellipses, then the last author’s name (See p. 184 in APA Publication Manual)


[9]        Yu, H., Zhou, Y.-J., Li, G.-X., Zhang, G.-H., Liu, H.-L., Yan, L.-P., . . . Tong, G.-Z. (2009). Further evidence for infection of pigs with human-like influenza viruses in China. Virus Research, 140, 85–90. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2008.11.008


Magazine Article

[10]    Kluger, J., & Dorfman, A. (2002, August 26). The challenges we face. Time, 160(9), 32–38.


Newspaper Article – no author

~ If no author is present, use the title of the article in place of the author’s name.


[11]    Rotor blades fail inspection. (2002, July 27). Medicine Hat News, p. A1.


Brochure – Same Author and Publisher

~ When the author and publisher are identical use the word author as the publisher.


[12]    Travel Alberta. (2002). Official Alberta vacation guide [Brochure]. Edmonton, Canada: Author.


Episode from a Television Series

~ Use writer and director in place of author, and producer in place of editor.


[13]    Dolinsky, M. (Writer), & Alexander, D. (Director). (1968). Plato’s stepchildren [Television series episode]. In F. Freiberger (Producer), Star Trek. Los Angeles, CA: Paramount Pictures.



~ Provide the primary contributors such as producer and/or director.

~ If the video is in DVD or Blu-ray formats, you would use those terms in place of “Videotape.”


[14]    Gillespie, M. (Producer), & Ashworth, S. (Director). (2000). Faces of reality [Videotape]. Edmonton, Canada: Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission.


Secondary Source

~ Cite only the secondary source in the reference list.


[15]    Eve, R. A., Horsfall, S., & Lee, M. E. (Eds.). (1997). Chaos, complexity, and sociology. London, England: Sage.


A Review

~ In square brackets use the phrase ―Review of the‖ and the type of material reviewed (book, video, etc.). If the article/review has a formal title, it will precede the bracketed text.


[16]    Osborne, R. E. (1998). [Review of the book The fabric of self: A theory of ethics and emotions, by D. Rothbard Margolis]. Choice, 36, 223.


Corporate Report, Government


~ If present, include publication or catalogue number in parenthesis after the title.


[17]    Health Canada. (2006). Residential indoor air quality guideline: Formaldehyde (HC Publication No. 4120). Retrieved from sesc/pdf/pubs/air/ formaldehyde-eng.pdf


No Author or Editor

~ Place the title in the author position.


[18]    Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.


Web Page

~ Provide as many of the bibliographic elements as are available.

~ Include the complete Web address for the page of information (cut and paste the web address to ensure accuracy).

~ Be sure that the Web site hosting a document is the actual author; a Web site might be hosting the information for other organizations.


[19]    United Nurses of Alberta. (2009, June). Fishing for facts on the nursing shortage? Retrieved from


Wiki Entry

~ The date of retrieval must be included when citing a wiki article.


[20]    APA style. (2009, October 15). In Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from


Video Blog (e.g., YouTube, etc.)

~ Use the screen name that the author/poster has adopted. Nothing is italicized.


[21]    myredroom. (2007, June 10). Paul sings Nessun Dorma high quality video/sound widescreen 16:9 [Video file]. Retrieved from


Archived Documents (This includes archived letters, limited- circulation brochures, in-house produced documents, private collections, etc.)

~ The presentation style and level of information will vary from source to source.


[22]    Vera Bracken Library. (2008, August). New student’s survival guide to Library Services. [Brochure]. Medicine Hat College, Medicine Hat, Canada.


(Blog Post)

[23]    Schroeder, S. (2009, October 5). Apple to Woolworths: Your New Logo Is Too Apple-y [Web log post]. Retrieved from


No Date

[24]    Rosenthal, R. (n.d.). Social research procedures. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.


Personal Communication

~ Do not list personal communications in the reference list.

~ Letters, transcripts, audio records, online public forums, etc. that are archived in archives, Internet, libraries, museums, etc. do need to be cited. Refer to Section 6.20 (p. 179) of the APA Publication Manual for details.

Short Quotation (less than 40 words)

~ Format your reference page entry according to the type of material you quoted from (i.e., book, journal article, Web site). Refer to the examples already listed.

Long Quotation (more than 40 words)

~ Format your reference page entry according to the type of material you quoted from (i.e., book, journal article, Web site). Refer to the examples already listed.

Quotation–no page numbers in the text

~ Format your reference page entry according to the type of material you quoted from (i.e., book, journal article, Web site). Refer to the examples already listed.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The text is single-spaced; uses a 11-point font; employs Times New Romans, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end. The template can be downloaded here. (OBLIGATORY)
  2. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal. (OBLIGATORY)
  3. The instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed. For example, I have removed the name(s) of author(s) and affiliation (s) from this manuscript as they have been incorporated in the user profile section. (OBLIGATORY)
  4. This manuscript is written in MS.Word  document format. (OBLIGATORY)
  5. This manuscript is original and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere. (OBLIGATORY)
  6. This manuscript is written in English. (OBLIGATORY)
  7. This study is within the area of linguistics and/or language education. (OBLIGATORY)
  8. This manuscript is a research article, not a book review or a systematic literature review. (OBLIGATORY)

  9. I have provided details for the corresponding author: full name, institution, phone number/WhatsApp, and email address in my user profile section and will do so in the metadata section. (OBLIGATORY)
  10. This manuscript`s abstract is between 150-200 words. (OBLIGATORY)
  11. This manuscript has 5-6 keywords. (OBLIGATORY)
  12. This manuscript is composed of 4000-8000 words including title, abstract, table (s) figure (s), chart (s), and references. (OBLIGATORY)
  13. This manuscript adheres to APA 7. (OBLIGATORY)
  14. This manuscript has been proofread prior to the submission. (OBLIGATORY)
  15. This manuscript does not have any header or footer other than the ones given in the template. (OBLIGATORY)
  16. Every source cited in the body of this manuscript appears in the References section. (OBLIGATORY)
  17. All sources appearing in the References section must appear in the body of this manuscript. (OBLIGATORY)
  18. This manuscript is written using a reference manager system (e.g Mendeley, Zotero, MS. Word`s Automatic References). (OPTIONAL)
  19. This manuscript does not contain any special characters (e.g phonetic, Hangeul, Kanji, Hiragana, Cyrilllic, Chinese, etc). If it does, the character recognition software is included as supplementary file(s). (OPTIONAL)
  20. This manuscript does not have any supplementary materials. (OPTIONAL)
  21. This manuscript does not have Appendices. (OPTIONAL)
  22. This manuscript can be printed in greyscale. (OPTIONAL)
  23. This manuscript has been checked using a plagiarism detecting tool (e.g. Turnitin, iThenticate, etc) with a similarity index of no more than 20%. (OPTIONAL)
  24. This manuscript has Acknowledgements. (OPTIONAL)
  25. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided. (OPTIONAL)

Copyright Notice

As a journal Author, you have rights for a large range of uses of your article, including use by your employing institute or company. These Author rights can be exercised without the need to obtain specific permission. 

Authors publishing in Parole: Journal of Linguistics and Education have wide rights to use their works for teaching and scholarly purposes without needing to seek permission, including: use for classroom teaching by Author or Author's institutionand presentation at a meeting or conference and distributing copies to attendees; use for internal training by author's company; distribution to colleagues for their reseearch use; use in a subsequent compilation of the author's works; inclusion in a thesis or dissertation; reuse of portions or extrcats from the article in other works (with full acknowledgement of final article); preparation of derivative works (other than commercial purposes) (with full acknowledgement of final article); voluntary posting on open web sites operated by author or author’s institution for scholarly purposes (follow CC by SA License).

Authors and readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.


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