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The Board of Editors is pleased to invite you to publish your papers in our journal which is published twice a year (April and October). The following are terms and conditions of publishing with PAROLE Journal of Linguistics and Education:
The manuscript should be typed in Times New Roman with MS Word, top and bottom margin 2.54 cm, left and right margin 1.91 cm, single spaced on quarto (size A4). The manuscript should be between 5,000 and 8,000 words in length, including references, and tables/ figures.
Quotations should be integrated in the text, except for those exceeding 3 lines. Separate quotations should be formatted with Left Indent: 0.5 and Right Indent: 0.5, without quotation marks.
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
Bullet and numbering within body text are not recommended. All sentences should be typed as descriptive paragraphs.
Tables are sequentially numbered with the table title and number above the table (11pt). Tables should be centered in the column OR on the page. Tables should be followed by a line space. Elements of a table should be single-spaced (9pt). However, double spacing can be used to show groupings of data or to separate parts within the table. Table headings should be horizontal in 9pt. Tables are referred in the text by the table number, e.g., Table 1. Do not show the vertical line in the table. There is only horizontal line should be shown in the table, as well as table heading.
Figures and charts are sequentially numbered commencing at 1, for example, with the figure/chart title and number below the figure/chart as shown in Figure 1/Chart Detailed recommendations for figures and charts are as follows:
Structure of the manuscript consists of three parts:
The Content of articles (11pt) is divided into:
Authors should state the objectives of the work at the end of introduction section. Before the objective, Authors should provide an adequate background, and very short literature survey in order to record the existing solutions/method, to show which is the best of previous studies, to show the main limitation of the previous research, to show what you hope to achieve (to solve the limitation) and to show what scientific merit or novelties of your paper is. Avoid a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Do not describe literature survey as author by author, but should be presented as group per method or topic reviewed which refers to some literatures.
Example of novelty statement or the gap analysis statement in the end of Introduction section (after state of the art of previous research survey): “........ (short summary of background)....... A few researchers focused on ....... There have been limited studies concerned on ........ Therefore, this research intends to ................. The objectives of this research are .........”.
RESEARCH METHODS (10-15% of the total article length)
The research method for research-based articles consists of description concerning the research design, data sources, data collection, and data analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (40-60% of the total article length)
Results should be clear and concise. The results should summarize (scientific) findings rather than providing data in great detail. Please highlight differences between your results or findings and the previous publications by other researchers. The discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
In discussion, it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Make the discussion corresponding to the results, but do not reiterate the results. Often should begin with a brief summary of the main scientific findings (not experimental results).
The following components should be covered in discussion: How do your results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section (what/how)? Do you provide interpretation scientifically for each of your results or findings presented (why)? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported (what else)? Or are there any differences?
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION (5-10% of the total article length)
Conclusions should answer the objectives of the research. Tells how your work advances the field from the present state of knowledge. Without clear Conclusions, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge the work, and whether or not it merits publication in the journal. Do not repeat the Abstract, or just list experimental results. Provide a clear scientific justification for your work, and indicate possible applications and extensions. You should also suggest future experiments and/or point out those that are underway.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (5-10% of the total article length)
Recognize those who helped in the research, especially funding supporter of your research. Include individuals who have assisted you in your study: Advisors, Financial supporters, or may another supporter, i.e. Proofreaders, Typists, and Suppliers, who may have given materials. Do not acknowledge one of the authors names.
REFERENCES (10-15% of the total article length)
Primarily taken from journals and in the last 10 years of publication. Management reference application, such as Mendeley, Zotero or Endnote, should be used by authors when citing a reference and creating the bibliography in the manuscript. The reference and citation should be APA (American Psychological Association) style. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list. The in-text citation for instance, (Levinson, 1987); ...Chomsky (2009); (Aronoff & Fudemen, 2011); ...Hariyono & Carthy (2008); Arifin et al. (2012); (Isnawati et al., 2015) and please hyperlink to references with bookmark. The References with hanging indent and align left, for instance,
Book – One Author
 Aronsson, L. (2000). The development of sustainable tourism. London, England: Continuum.
Book – Two Authors
 Cushing, C. E., & Allan, J. D. (2001). Streams: Their ecology and life. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Book – Three to Five Authors
 Hayes, S. C., Stosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Editor and no Author
 Carlock, C. J. (Ed.). (1999). Enhancing self-esteem (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Accelerated Development.
Chapter or Section of a Book – with an author
 Regulus, T. A. (1995). Gang violence. In R. L. Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1045–1055). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.
Chapter or Section of a Book – no author
 Anderson, K. N., Anderson, L. E., & Glanze, W. D. (Eds.). (1994). Subcutaneous injection. In Mosby's medical, nursing, and allied health dictionary (4th ed., p. 1497). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Journal Article (Print)
~ If each issue of a volume begins on page 1 or you are unsure, then include the issue number in parenthesis after the volume number (e.g., 285(5)).
 Koopman, W. J. (2001). Prospects for autoimmune disease: Research advances in rheumatoid arthritis. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 648–650.
Journal Article from Publisher Web Site (article with no DOI)
~ Include print information, followed by the URL of the journal’s homepage.
 Koopman, W. J. (2001). Prospects for autoimmune disease: Research advances in rheumatoid arthritis. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 648–650. Retrieved from http://jama .ama-assn.org/
Full Text Article with Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
~ For more on a DOI, go to: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/what-is-doi.aspx
~ If authors number eight or more, use the first six names, then insert three ellipses, then the last author’s name (See p. 184 in APA Publication Manual)
 Yu, H., Zhou, Y.-J., Li, G.-X., Zhang, G.-H., Liu, H.-L., Yan, L.-P., . . . Tong, G.-Z. (2009). Further evidence for infection of pigs with human-like influenza viruses in China. Virus Research, 140, 85–90. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2008.11.008
 Kluger, J., & Dorfman, A. (2002, August 26). The challenges we face. Time, 160(9), 32–38.
Newspaper Article – no author
~ If no author is present, use the title of the article in place of the author’s name.
 Rotor blades fail inspection. (2002, July 27). Medicine Hat News, p. A1.
Brochure – Same Author and Publisher
~ When the author and publisher are identical use the word author as the publisher.
 Travel Alberta. (2002). Official Alberta vacation guide [Brochure]. Edmonton, Canada: Author.
Episode from a Television Series
~ Use writer and director in place of author, and producer in place of editor.
 Dolinsky, M. (Writer), & Alexander, D. (Director). (1968). Plato’s stepchildren [Television series episode]. In F. Freiberger (Producer), Star Trek. Los Angeles, CA: Paramount Pictures.
~ Provide the primary contributors such as producer and/or director.
~ If the video is in DVD or Blu-ray formats, you would use those terms in place of “Videotape.”
 Gillespie, M. (Producer), & Ashworth, S. (Director). (2000). Faces of reality [Videotape]. Edmonton, Canada: Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission.
~ Cite only the secondary source in the reference list.
 Eve, R. A., Horsfall, S., & Lee, M. E. (Eds.). (1997). Chaos, complexity, and sociology. London, England: Sage.
~ In square brackets use the phrase ―Review of the‖ and the type of material reviewed (book, video, etc.). If the article/review has a formal title, it will precede the bracketed text.
 Osborne, R. E. (1998). [Review of the book The fabric of self: A theory of ethics and emotions, by D. Rothbard Margolis]. Choice, 36, 223.
Corporate Report, Government
~ If present, include publication or catalogue number in parenthesis after the title.
 Health Canada. (2006). Residential indoor air quality guideline: Formaldehyde (HC Publication No. 4120). Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/alt_formats/hecs- sesc/pdf/pubs/air/ formaldehyde-eng.pdf
No Author or Editor
~ Place the title in the author position.
 Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
~ Provide as many of the bibliographic elements as are available.
~ Include the complete Web address for the page of information (cut and paste the web address to ensure accuracy).
~ Be sure that the Web site hosting a document is the actual author; a Web site might be hosting the information for other organizations.
 United Nurses of Alberta. (2009, June). Fishing for facts on the nursing shortage? Retrieved from http://www.una.ab.ca/news/archive/pdfs/Wrong%20Way/redherring.pdf
~ The date of retrieval must be included when citing a wiki article.
 APA style. (2009, October 15). In Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/APA_style
Video Blog (e.g., YouTube, etc.)
~ Use the screen name that the author/poster has adopted. Nothing is italicized.
 myredroom. (2007, June 10). Paul sings Nessun Dorma high quality video/sound widescreen 16:9 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1k08yxu57NA
Archived Documents (This includes archived letters, limited- circulation brochures, in-house produced documents, private collections, etc.)
~ The presentation style and level of information will vary from source to source.
 Vera Bracken Library. (2008, August). New student’s survival guide to Library Services. [Brochure]. Medicine Hat College, Medicine Hat, Canada.
 Schroeder, S. (2009, October 5). Apple to Woolworths: Your New Logo Is Too Apple-y [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2009/10/05/apple-woolworths-logo/
 Rosenthal, R. (n.d.). Social research procedures. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
~ Do not list personal communications in the reference list.
~ Letters, transcripts, audio records, online public forums, etc. that are archived in archives, Internet, libraries, museums, etc. do need to be cited. Refer to Section 6.20 (p. 179) of the APA Publication Manual for details.
Short Quotation (less than 40 words)
~ Format your reference page entry according to the type of material you quoted from (i.e., book, journal article, Web site). Refer to the examples already listed.
Long Quotation (more than 40 words)
Quotation–no page numbers in the text
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
This manuscript is a research article, not a book review or a systematic literature review. (OBLIGATORY)
As a journal Author, you have rights for a large range of uses of your article, including use by your employing institute or company. These Author rights can be exercised without the need to obtain specific permission.
Authors publishing in Parole: Journal of Linguistics and Education have wide rights to use their works for teaching and scholarly purposes without needing to seek permission, including: use for classroom teaching by Author or Author's institutionand presentation at a meeting or conference and distributing copies to attendees; use for internal training by author's company; distribution to colleagues for their reseearch use; use in a subsequent compilation of the author's works; inclusion in a thesis or dissertation; reuse of portions or extrcats from the article in other works (with full acknowledgement of final article); preparation of derivative works (other than commercial purposes) (with full acknowledgement of final article); voluntary posting on open web sites operated by author or author’s institution for scholarly purposes (follow CC by SA License).
Authors and readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.