In-situ Polymerization of Styrene to Produce Polystyrene / Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

*Lahouari Mrah  -  Laboratory of Polymer Chemical, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences University of Oran1 Ahmed Benbella, 31100 Oran,, Algeria
Rachid Meghabar  -  Laboratory of Polymer Chemical, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences University of Oran1 Ahmed Benbella, 31100 Oran,, Algeria
Mohammed Belbachir  -  Laboratory of Polymer Chemical, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences University of Oran1 Ahmed Benbella, 31100 Oran,, Algeria
Received: 29 Jun 2015; Published: 30 Dec 2015.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Cover Image
Abstract

A reactive cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was synthesized for intercalation of montmorillonite Mmt, a Maghnite type of clay. The pristine montmorillonite (Mmt) was obtained from Algerian plant with a cation exchange, Organophilic Mmt, was prepared by ion exchange between Na+ ions in the clay. CTAB-intercalated Mmt particles were easily dispersed and swollen in styrene monomer, PS/Mmt-CTAB nanocomposites were synthesized via in-situ polymerization, in-situ polymerization, this method is based on the swelling of the silicate layers with the liquid polymer. The polymer composites were characterized using different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), The results were showed that, the basal space of the silicate layer increased, as determined by XRD, from 12.79 to 32.603 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that exfoliation of Mmt was achieved. In this current research, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and  force atomic microscopy (AFM) were also studied. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved

Received: 29th June 2015; Revised: 9th August 2015; Accepted: 15th August 2015

How to Cite: Mrah, L., Megabar, R., Belbachir, M. (2015). In-situ Polymerization of Styrene to Produce Polystyrene / Montmorillonite Nanocomposites. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (3): 249-255. (doi: 10.9767/bcrec.10.3.8708.249-255)

Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.3.8708.249-255

Keywords: nanocomposites; Montmorillonite; in situ polymerization; force atomic microscopy (AFM); X-ray diffraction
Funding: Lahouari Mrah1* Rachid Megabar1, Mohammed Belbachir1.

Article Metrics:

  1. Usuki, A., Kojima, Y., Kawasumi, M., Okada, A., Fukushima, Y., Kurauchi, T., Kamigaito, O. (1993). Synthesis of nylon 6-clay hybrid. Journal of Materials Research, 8(5): 1179-1184
  2. Kojima, Y., Usuki, A., Kawasumi, M., Okada, A., Fukushima, Y., Kurauchi, T.,Kamigaito, O. (1993). Mechanical properties of nylon 6-clay hybrid. Journal of Materials Research, 8(5): 1185-1189
  3. Gao, F. (2004). Clay/polymer composites: the story. Materials Today, 7(11): 50-55
  4. Tjong, S.C. (2006). Structural and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites. Mate-rials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 53(3-4): 73-198
  5. Sinha Ray, S., and Okamoto, M. (2003). Poly-mer/layered silicate nanocomposites: a review from preparation to processing. Progress in Polymer Science, 28(11): 1539-1641
  6. Wang, Z., and Pinnavaia, T.,J (1998). Nanolayer Reinforcement of Elastomeric Polyurethane. Chemistry of Materials, 10(12): 3769-3771
  7. Yoon, P.J., Fornes, T.D., and Paul, D.R. (2002). Thermal expansion behavior of nylon 6 nanocomposites. Polymer, 43(25): 6727-6741
  8. Beyer, G. (2002). Nanocomposites: a new class of flame retardants for polymers. Plastics, Additives and Compounding, 4(10): 22-28
  9. Jeong, H.K., Krych, W., Ramanan, H., Nair, S., Marand, E., Tsapatsis M. (2004). Fabrica-tion of Polymer/Selective-Flake Nanocompo-site Membranes and Their Use in Gas Sepa-ration. Chemistry of Materials, 16(20): 3838- 3845
  10. Ogasawara, T., Ishida, Y., Ishikawa, T., Aoki, T., Ogura, T. (2006). Helium gas permeability of montmorillonite/epoxy nanocomposites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 37(12): 2236-2240
  11. Xu, B., Zheng, Q., Song, Y., Shangguan, Y. (2006) . Calculating barrier properties of poly-mer/clay nanocomposites: Effects of clay lay-ers. Polymer. 47(8): 2904-2910
  12. Cárdenas, M.A., GarcÃa-López, D., Gober-nado- Mitre, I., Merino, J.C., Pastor, J.M., MartÃnez, J.D.D., Barbeta, J., Calveras, D. (2008). Mechanical and fire retardant proper-ties of EVA/clay/ATH nanocomposites – Effect of particle size and surface treatment of ATH filler. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 93(11): 2032-2037
  13. Du, B., Guo, Z., Song, P., Liu, H., Fang, Z., Wu, Y. (2009). Flame retardant mechanis of organo-bentonite in polypropylene. Applied Clay Science, 45(3): 178-18
  14. Alexandre, M., and Dubois, P. (2000). Poly-mer-layered silicate nanocomposites: prepara-tion, properties and uses of a new class of ma-terials. Material Science and Engineering R, 28(1-2): 1-63
  15. Ray, S.S., Okamoto, K., and Okamoto, M. (2003). Structure−Property Relationship in Biodegradable Poly(butylene succi-nate)/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites. Mac-romolecules, 36(7): 2355–2367
  16. Vaia, R.A., and Giannelis, E.P. (1997). Poly-mer Melt Intercalation in Organically-Modified Layered Silicates: Model Predictions and Experiment. Macromolecules, 30: 8000-8009
  17. Nguyen, Q.T., and Baird, D.G. (2007). An im-proved technique for exfoliating and dispers-ing nanoclay particles into polymer matrices using supercritical carbon dioxide. Polymer, 48(23): 6923-6933
  18. Zhang, Z., ZHAO, N., WEI, W., WU, D., SUN, Y. (2006). Synthesis and characterization of poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) clay nanocomposites via emulsion polymeriza-tion. International Journal of Nanoscience, 5(2-3): 291-297
  19. Herrera-Alonso, J.M., Marand, E., Little, J.C., Cox, S.S. (2009). Transport properties in poly-urethane/clay nanocomposites as barrier ma-terials: Effect of processing conditions. Mem-brane Science, 337(1-2): 208-214
  20. Patel, S., Bandyopadhyay, A., Vijayabaskar, V., Bhowmick Anil.K. (2006). Effect of acrylic copolymer an terpolymer composition on the properties of in-situ polymer silica hy-brid nanocomposites. Journal of Materials Sci-ence, 41(3): 927-936
  21. Xu, Y., Brittain W.J., Xue, C., Eby, R.K. (2004). Effect of clay type on morphology and thermal stability of PMMA-clay nanocompo-sites prepared by thermal heterocoagulation method. Polymer, 45(11): 3735-3746
  22. Yang, W.T., ko, T.H., Wang, S.C., Shih, P.I., Chang, M.J., Jiang, G.J. (2008). Preparation of polystyrene/clay nanocomposite by suspen-sion and emulsion polymerization. Polymer Composites, 29(4): 409-414
  23. Diaconu, G., Micusik, M., Bonnefond, A., Pau-lis, M., Leiza, J. R. (2009). Macroinitiator and macromonomer modified montmorillonite for the synthesis of acrylic/MMT nanocomposite latexes. Macromolecules, 42(9): 3316-3325
  24. Donescu, D., Corobea, M.C., Uricanu, V., Ra-dovici, C., Serban, S., Garea, S.A. (2007). Syn-thesis of polyvinylacetate-sodium montmoril-lonite hybrids by emulsion polymerization in the presence of anionic surfactants. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 28(5): 671-679
  25. Ruggerone, R., Christopher, J.G.P., Herrera, N.N., Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie, Månson, Jan- Anders E. (2009). Highly filled polystyrene-laponite nanocomposites prepared by emul-sion polymerization. European Polymer Jour-nal, 45(3): 621-629
  26. Negrete-Herrera, N., Letoffe, J.M., Putaux, J.L., David, L., Bourgeat-Lami E. (2004). Aqueous dispersions of silane-functionalized laponite clay platelets. A first step toward the elaboration of water-based polymer/clay nano-composites. Langmuir, 20(5): 1564-1571
  27. Diaconu, G., Paulis, M., and Leiza, J.R. (2008.) Towards the synthesis of high solids Content waterborne poly(methyl methacry-late-co-butyl acrylate)/montmorillonite nano-composites. Polymer, 48(10): 2444-2454
  28. Zhang, J., Chen, K., and Zhao, H. (2008). PMMA colloid particles armored by clay Lay-ers with PDMAEMA polymer brushes. Jour-nal of Polymer Science A: Polymer Chemistry, 46(8): 2632-2639.’
  29. Bon, S.A.F., and Colver, P.J. (2007). Pickering miniemulsion polymerization using laponite clay as a stabilizer. Langmuir, 23(16): 8316-8322
  30. Guillot, S., Bergaya, F., de Azevedo, C., War-mont, F., Tranchant, Jean-François. (2009). Internally structred pickering emulsions sta-bilized by clay mineral particles. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 333(2): 563-569
  31. Voorn, D.J., Ming, W., and van Herk, A.M. (2006). Polymer-clay nanocomposites latex particles by inverse pickering emulsion po-lymerization stabilized with hydrophobic montmorillonite platelets. Macromolecules, 39(6): 2137-2143
  32. Wu, Y., Zhang, J., and Zhao, H. (2009). Func-tional colloidal particle stabilized by Layered silicate with hydrophilic face and hydrophobic polymer brushes. Journal of Polymer Science A: Polymer Chemistry, 47(6): 1535-1543
  33. Ding, S., Liu, B., Zhang, C., Wu, Y., Xu, H. (2009). Amphiphilic mesoporous silica com-posite nanosheets. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 19: 3443-3448
  34. Cauvin, S., Colver, P.J., and Bon, S.A.F. (2005). Pickering stabilized miniemulsion po-lymerization: preparation of clay armored latexes. Macromolecules, 38(19): 7887-7889
  35. Pickering, S.U. (1907). Pickering: Emulsions. Journal of the Chemical Society Transactions, 91(23): 2001-2021
  36. Binks, B.P. (2002). Particles as surfactants--similarities and differences. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 7(1-2): 21-41
  37. Belbachir, M., Bensaoula, A. (2003). Composi-tion and Method for Catalysis using Ben-tonites, US Patent 0069446 A1
  38. Belbachir, M., Bensaoula, A. (2001). US Pa-tent 6,274,527 B1
  39. Le Pluart, Loïc. (2002). Nanocomposites, ep-oxyde, amine, montmorillonite : Role of Inter-actions on The formation, Morphology at Dif-ferent Levels of Scale and Mechanical Proper-ties of The Networks. PhD Thesis, National Institute of Applied Sciences, Lyon
  40. Kherroub, D., Belbachir, M., Saad Lamouri. (2014). Nylon 6/clay nanocompositesvpre-pared with Algerian modified clay (12-maghnite). Research on Chemical Intermedi-ates, 41(8): 5217-5228
  41. Liu, X., Wu, Q. (2001). PP/clay nanocompo-sites prepared by grafting melt Intercalation. Polymer, 42(25): 10013-10019
  42. Dietsche, F., Mülhaupt, R. (1999). Thermal properties and flammability of acrylic nano-composites based upon organophylic layered silicates, Polym. Bull. 43(4-5): 395-402
  43. Abranyi, A., Szazdi, L., Pukanszky, B., Vancso, J., Pukanszky, B. (2006). Formation and Detection of Clay Network Structure in Poly(propylene)/Layered Silicate Nanocompo-sites, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 27(2): 132-135

Last update: 2021-05-15 13:15:57

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-05-15 13:15:57

  1. Influence of clay modification process in polypyrrole-layered silicate nanocomposite

    Mrah L.. SN Applied Sciences, 2 (4), 2020. doi: 10.1007/s42452-020-2338-7
  2. Dispersion and improvement of organoclays in nanocomposites based on poly(propylene oxide)

    Mrah L.. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 2020. doi: 10.1177/0892705720939172
  3. Synthesis of block copolymers consists on vinylidene chloride and α- Methylstyrene by cationic polymerization using an acid exchanged motmorillonite clay as heterogeneous catalyst (Algerian MMT)

    Ayat M.. Journal of Molecular Structure, 127 , 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.molstruc.2017.03.056
  4. In situ polymerization of styrene–clay nanocomposites and their properties

    Mrah L.. Polymer Bulletin, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s00289-020-03274-5