DROUGHT HAZARD CHARACTERISTIC USING SOIL MOISTURE DEFICIT INDEX MODELLING

*Lulu Mari Fitria -  , Indonesia
Septiana Fathurrohmah - 
Received: 2 Aug 2017; Published: 25 Apr 2018.
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DROUGHT HAZARD CHARACTERISTIC USING SOIL MOISTURE DEFICIT INDEX MODELLING
Subject Drought, hazard, modelling, soil moisture
Type Research Instrument
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Abstract
Drought happen when the rainfall decreases in the extreme condition for long period of  time (above normal). Drought hazard mapping can be analyzed by various approaches, like environmental approach, ecological approach, hydrological approach, meteorological approach, geological approach, agricultural approach, and many other. Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (in Indonesia a.k.a BMKG) measures the drought hazard by utilizing Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)The comparison of rainfall rate through SPI has positive correlation with  drought type, for example SPI 3 indicates agricultural drought; while SPI 6, SPI 9 and SPI 12 indicate  hydrological drought. The analysis of drought hazard level also can be done using soil moisture level measurement. Soil moisture is the result of water shortages in the hydroclimatological concept. Soil moisture analysis utilizes several influenced variables, such as soil water, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and percolation. Each of variables was analyzed using GIS as a method of soil moisture modeling. Drought index level analysis is using soil moisture deficit index, which indicates that drought occurs if the index score less than (-0.5). Some assumptions used in this modeling are both SMDI modeling using WHC (Water Holding Capacity) and  without using WHC. This modeling used medium term analysis during 2007-2012 to prove the occurrence of extreme drought on 2009 and 2012 for measurement of drought level in agriculture area. Based on SMDI, it is known that the dangers of SMDI drought have positive correlation to SPI 3, SPI 6, SPI 9, and SPI 12, where SPI is in accordance with the interpretation of meteorolgy, agriculture, and hydrological drought indices.

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Keywords
Drought, hazard, modeling, soil moisture

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