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Bioactive Cembranoid Composition in the Soft Coral of Sarcophyton glaccum on The Response to Changing pH

11. Indonesian Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology, Jl. KS Tubun Petamburan VI Slipi Jakarta Pusat Indonesia 10260., Indonesia

22. Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Marine Science and Fisheries, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl, Raya Dramaga, Kampus IPB, Bogor, Indonesia 16680, Indonesia

3Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Marine Science and Fisheries, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl, Raya Dramaga, Kampus IPB, Bogor, Indonesia 16680, Indonesia

4 Indonesian Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology, Jl. KS Tubun Petamburan VI Slipi Jakarta Pusat Indonesia 10260, Indonesia

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Received: 10 Jun 2016; Published: 1 Mar 2017.

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Abstract

Soft coral is predicted to outcompete with hard coral in future ocean acidification scenarios. Beside the biological resilience shown in acidic conditions, soft corals ability to maintain or compete for space is shown to relate with their ability to produce cytotoxic cembranoid-type compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate composition of cytotoxic cembranoid compounds of Sarcophyton glaccum soft coral exposed to current and predicted future ocean acidification scenarios. Sarcophyton glaccum colonies were acclimated along a pH gradient to simulate predicted increases in ocean acidification: natural/current (pH 8,2), slight increase in acidification (pH 8.0 year-1 2060), and moderate increase in acidification (pH 7,8 year­-1 2100). Cembranoid composition was determined by quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy while cytotoxic activity was determined against tumor cell lines. Results of the study showed cytotoxicity and sarcophytoxide (the most active cembranoid compound in observed Sarcophyton glaccum) were both found to be higher at pH 8,0. However, a further increase of acidification resulted on a reduction of both the cytotoxicity and sarcophytoxide production. This suggests that acidification pressures affect directly the defense system metabolism of Sarcophyton glaccum and that while they may be resilient to small decreases in pH, their ability to compete for space may be hampered by more pronounced changes.

 

Keywords: Cembranoids; Cytotoxic; Sarcophyton glaccum; Seawater Acidification; Soft Coral.

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Funding: Indonesian Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Competitiveness and Biotechnology

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