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Kajian Daerah Rawan Bencana Gelombang Badai Pasang (Storm Tide) di Kawasan Pesisir Selatan Jawa, Bali, dan Nusa Tenggara Barat

1Kelompok Keahlian Oseanografi, FITB, Institut Teknologi Bandung Gedung Lab Tek XI, Lt. 1, ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia. Telp.: (022)-2505253, Fax: (022)-2534139, E-mail: nining@fitb.itb.ac.id, Indonesia

2Kelompok Keahlian Oseanografi, FITB, Institut Teknologi Bandung Gedung Lab Tek XI, Lt. 1, ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia. Telp.: (022)-2505253, Fax: (022)-2534139, Indonesia

3Program Magister Teknik Geodesi dan Geomatika, FITB - ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia

4 Program Magister Teknik Geodesi dan Geomatika, FITB - ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung

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Received: 9 Feb 2012; Published: 11 Feb 2012.

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Abstract

Gelombang badai pasang (storm tide) yang dibangkitkan pasang surut dan siklon tropis di Samudera Hindia sering menerjang kawasan pesisir selatan Jawa, Bali, dan Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB). Pada penelitian ini, model hidrodinamika dua dimensi (2D) horisontal Mike 21 digunakan untuk mensimulasikan tinggi gelombang, run-up, dan genangan di sepanjang kawasan pesisir selatan Jawa, Bali, dan NTB yang ditimbulkan oleh penjalaran gelombang pasang surut dan badai yang dibangkitkan oleh badai Jacob (2-12 Maret 2007) dan George (3-9 Maret 2007) di perairan pantai barat laut Australia. Penjalaran gelombang badai pasang disimulasikan dengan menggunakan data elevasi pasang surut di daerah batas terbuka model, angin, tekanan udara, dan lintasan badai. Data elevasi pasang surut diperoleh dari TMD (tide model driver), sedangkan data angin dan tekanan udara diperoleh dari NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction). Data sea level anomaly (SLA) mingguan dari TOPEX Poseidon digunakan untuk memverifikasi tinggi gelombang badai (surge) yang dihasilkan model. Gelombang badai (surge) tertinggi di kawasan pesisir selatan Jawa, Bali, dan NTB, masing-masing  terjadi di Nusa Kambangan (Jawa; 19,0 cm), Tuban (Bali; 14,7 cm), Teluk Gumbang (Lombok; 12,2 cm), dan Tanjung Labulawah (Sumbawa; 12,5 cm). Jarak genangan maksimum gelombang badai pasang serta tinggi run-up yang menyertainya (H) terjadi di Teluk Penanjung (Jawa; R max = 835,2 m, H= 0,73 m), Tuban (Bali; R max = 623,5 m, H= 1,02 m), Tanjung Ringgit (Lombok; R max = 1112,3 m, H= 1,03 m) dan Teluk Cempi (Sumbawa; R max = 4136,5 m, H= 1,10 m)

Kata kunci : gelombang badai, gelombang badai pasang, genangan, run-up, model hidrodinamika

 

Storm surges generated by tropical cyclone in the Indian Ocean have often attacked southern coasts of Java, Bali, and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB). In this study, A two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model of Mike 21 has been applied to simulate wave height, run-up, and inundation along the southern coasts of Java, Bali, and NTB, generated by tides and the Cyclone Jacob during 2-12 March 2007 and by the Cyclone George during 3-9 March 2007 in northwestern coastal waters of Australia. The storm tide event was simulated by imposing tidal elevations at the open boundaries, winds, air pressure, and storm tracks. Tidal elevation data were derived from TMD (tide model driver), while wind and air pressure data were obtained from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction). The weekly TOPEX Poseidon Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) was used to validate the model results of surge height. Highest surges along the southern coasts of Java, Bali, and NTB existed at Nusa Kambangan (Jawa; 19.0 cm), Tuban (Bali; 14.7 cm), Teluk Gumbang (Lombok; 12.2 cm), and Tanjung Labulawah (Sumbawa; 12.5 cm). Maximum distances of storm tide flooding (Rmax) and their associated run-up heights (H) occured at Teluk Penanjung (Jawa; R max = 835.2 m, H = 0.73 m), Tuban (Bali; Rmax = 623. m, H = 1.02 m), Tanjung Ringgit (Lombok; R max = 1112.3 m, H = 1.03 m), and Teluk Cempi (Sumbawa; Rmax = 4136.5 m, H= 1.0 m).

Key words : storm surges, storm tide, inundation, run-up, hydrodynamic model.

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