Struktur Komunitas Karang Keras (Scleractinia) di Perairan Pulau Marabatuan dan Pulau Matasirih, Kalimantan Selatan

*Munasik Munasik  -  Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia 50275 Email: munasik@undip.ac.id, Indonesia
Rikoh Manogar Siringoringo  -  Pusat Penelitian Oseanografi, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI) , Indonesia
Received: 11 Feb 2012; Published: 12 Feb 2012.
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Abstract

Struktur komunitas karang keras (Scleractinia) di perairan Pulau Marabatuan dan Pulau Matasirih, Kalimantan Selatan telah diamati dengan metode transek sabuk. Keanekaragaman jenis karang di perairan Kalimantan Selatan ini tergolong tinggi, sebanyak 98 jenis dari 36 genera karang keras telah ditemukan akan tetapi komunitas karang dalam keadaan labil dan tertekan karena dipengaruhi oleh run off daratan yang berasal dari Sungai Barito. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komunitas karang di P. Marabatuan umumnya terdiri dari kelompok karang yang tahan terhadap kekeruhan, eutrofikasi dan salinitas rendah yaitu karang Poritiid (masif), Agariciid dan Faviid (tekanan lingkungan bersifat kronis). Sedangkan di P. Matasirih lebih banyak tersusun atas kelompok karang yang rentan terhadap perubahan lingkungan yang ekstrim dan mendadak, seperti Acropora (tekanan lingkungan bersifat akut). Perbedaan struktur komunitas karang keras akibat perbedaan tingkat tekanan  lingkungan (kronis  vs  akut)  dari  dua  wilayah  terumbu  karang  di  perairan  Kalimantan  Selatan membutuhkan model pengelolaan yang berbeda.

Kata kunci: Karang keras (Scleractinia), P. Marabatuan, P. Matasirih, Kalimantan Selatan

 

The community structure of Scleractinian corals at Marabatuan Island and Matasirih Island, South Kalimantan was investigated using belt transects to determine the effects of runoff from Barito River. The reefs at the South Kalimantan have high diversity of corals, i.e. 98 species, 36 genera of Scleractinian corals were found in shallow reefs, however apparently the coral community was labile and understressed which is caused by water runoff of Barito River. The result shows that reefs in Marabatuan Island were composed by various species of corals which resistant in high water turbidity, low salinity and eutrophycated waters, such as Poritiid (massive), Agariciid dan Faviid (chronic). Conversely, reefs in Matasirih Island were composed by various susceptible species of corals that may under unpredictable stressed by extreme change of waters such as Acropora (acute). Based on the differences of the coral community structure between two reef area which is caused by the difference of environmental stress level i.e. chronic and acute, it can be used as appropriate model of coral reef management in South Kalimantan.

Key words: Scleractinia, Marabatuan Island, Matasirih Island, South Kalimantan

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