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Effect of Silvofishery on Ponds Nutrient Levels (Pengaruh Silvofishery Terhadap Kandungan Nutrien di Tambak)

1Marine Science Study Program, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Indonesia

2Sriwijaya University, Palembang, South Sumatera, Indonesia 30662, Indonesia

Published: 3 Jun 2014.

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Abstract

Taman Nasional Sembilang merupakan salah satu taman nasional yang terletak di Sumatera Selatan dan menjadi kawasan mangrove terbesar di barat Indonesia. Sebagian besar wilayah mangrovenya telah mengalami alih fungsi menjadi tambak pasang surut. Hal ini menyebabkan timbulnya kekhawatiran kerusakan mangrove di taman nasional. Salah satu upaya untuk mempertahankan wilayah mangrove adalah dengan melakukan sistem silvofishery, yaitu penanaman mangrove dan budidaya bandeng dilakukan secara bersamaan di tambak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kualitas air dan kondisi nutrien di tambak di daerah restorasi silvofishery di Taman Nasional Sembilang. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode purposive sampling di tambak silvofishery, tambak non-silvofishery, dan badan air sungai di seluruh wilayah taman nasional. Pengukuran dilakukan terhadap parameter kualitas air dan kandungan nutrien khususnya nitrat dan fosfat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kehadiran tanaman mangrove di daerah tambak mampu memperbaiki kandungan oksigen dan pH air tambak. Mangrove juga menunjukkan kemampuan dalam mengikat nitrat yang secara tidak langsung akan mencegah air tambak dari polusi. Namun, kandungan fosfat tinggi menunjukkan bahwa tanaman mangrove muda di wilayah restorasi belum mampu mengikat nutrien ini secara signifikan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hutan mangrove sangat bermanfaat bagi kegiatan budidaya tambak karena kemampuannya dalam menyerap polutan nutrient.

Kata kunci: silvofishery; kolam; nitrat; fosfat; Taman Nasional Sembilang

Sembilang National Park is one of the national parks which is located in South Sumatera and became the largest mangrove area in western Indonesia. Most of the mangroves area in this national park has been experiencing conversion to be tidal ponds. This has resulted in concerns on mangrove forest destruction in the park. One of the efforts to maintain mangroves area is by applying silvofishery system, which is mangrove planting and cultivation of milkfish in ponds performed simultaneously. This study aims to investigate the water quality and nutrient condition in the ponds in the area of silvofishery restoration at Sembilang National Park. The study was conducted by purposive sampling method in the silvofishery ponds, non-silvofishery ponds, and river water bodies throughout the park. Measurements conducted on water quality parameters and nutrient content, especially nitrate and phosphate. The results showed that the presence of mangrove in the ponds area is able to improve the oxygen content and pH of pond water. Mangroves also demonstrated the ability to bind nitrates which indirectly will prevent the pond water from pollution. However, the high phosphorus content showed that young mangrove plants in the restoration area have not been able to significantly bind the of this nutrient. The results of this study showed that mangrove forests are very beneficial for aquaculture activities because of its ability to absorb nutrient pollutants.

Keywords: silvofishery; ponds; nitrate; phosphate; Sembilang National Park

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