Phylogenetic Analysis of the Darkfin Hind, Cephalopholis urodeta (Serranidae) Using Partial Mitochondrial CO1 Gene Sequences (Analisis Filogenetik Cephalopholis urodeta (Serranidae) Menggunakan Runutan Gen CO1 Mitokondria Parsial)

*Yanti Ariyanti  -  Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, , Indonesia
Achmad Farajallah  -  Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, , Indonesia
Irma Shita Arlyza  -  Research Center for Oceanography Laboratory, Indonesian Institute of Sciences , Indonesia
Published: 2 Mar 2015.
Open Access

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Abstract

Cephalopholis merupakan salah satu genera terbesar dalam subfamili Epinephelinae yang memiliki banyak species. Secara fenotip, C. urodeta dewasa mirip dengan juvenil C. sonnerati karena memiliki ciri mencolok yaitu garis yang menyudut pada sirip ekor. Untuk memahami hubungan genetik pada spesies ikan ini, maka dilakukan analisis molekuler menggunakan ruas gen CO1. Sejumlah spesies ikan (famili Serranidae) dikumpulkan dari wilayah Sulawesi Selatan seperti Sinjai dan Kepulauan Selayar. Karakter fenotip diidentifikasi menggunakan buku katalog spesies kerapu dunia FAO, kemudian sampel yang diduga C. urodeta secara morfologi dipisahkan. Jaringan yang digunakan sebagai sumber DNA adalah jaringan otot bagian dorsal. Berdasarkan sebagian runutan gen CO1, diyakini bahwa sampel tersebut adalah C. urodeta. Runutan basa nukleotida dari sampel dibandingkan dengan 22 runutan basa nukleotida C. urodeta dari GenBank. Berdasarkan rekonstruksi pohon filogeni, C. urodeta dari Sinjai dan Kepulauan Selayar mengelompok dengan C. urodeta dari berbagai tempat seperti Polynesia, Mariana Utara, Filipina, pulau-pulau di sekitar Madagascar (Ouest, St. Gilles, Canyon, Cimetiere, Jaune) dan Adaman, sedangkan sampel dari Laut Arab di lepas pantai India berada pada cabang yang terpisah. Penelitian ini menyatakan bahwa C. urodeta yang melibatkan beberapa tempat dari berbagai perairan seperti Samudera Pasifik bagian Selatan (Polynesia), Samudera Pasifik bagian Utara (Northern Mariana), Laut China Selatan (Filipina), Teluk Bengal (Andaman), Laut Laccadive (reunion of Ouest, St. Gilles and Cimetiere), Laut Arab dan Indo Pasifik Barat (Indonesia) memiliki perbedaan jarak genetik yang kecil. Hal ini berimplikasi pada pemahaman pola migrasi spesies tersebut dan sebagai bahan pertimbangan pengambilan kebijakan konservasi.

Kata kunci: Cephalopholis urodeta, CO1, filogenetik, Serranidae, Sulawesi Selatan

Cephalopholis is one of the largest genera belonging to Subfamilly Epinephelinae, which has various species. Phenotypically, an adult C. urodeta similar to a juvenile of C. sonnerati, since both of them have a striking trait, two white oblique stripes or bands on the caudal fins. This work was conducted to investigate the genetic relationships of this species using CO1 gene segment. Fish were collected from several sampling point in South Sulawesi areas such as Sinjai and Selayar Island. The phenotypic characterizations were identified using the FAO species catalogue of groupers of the world, and the species that seemed to have C. urodeta morphology then separated. Tissue samples from dorsal muscle tissue were used as the source of DNA. Using part of the CO1 gene sequence, it can be confirmed that our samples are exactly C. urodeta species. The 22 C. urodeta sequences from GeneBank compared with our sequences. Interestingly, because based on the phylogenetic tree, our sequences clustered with the other C. urodeta sequences from several part of the world except the Arabian Sea off the coast of India, which is a separate branch. The present study reveals less genetic distance in C. urodeta than some other parts of the ocean as follows; South Pacific Ocean (Polynesia), North Pacific Ocean (Northern Mariana), South China Sea (Philippines), Andaman, west coast of Réunion Island, Arabian Sea and Indo West Pacific (Indonesia). This has implications for understanding the migration pattern of the species and may affect conservation policy decisions.

Keywords: Cephalopholis urodeta, CO1, phylogenetics, Serranidae, South Sulawesi

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