Analisis Kandungan Logam Berat Pada Ikan Kakap Putih (Lates calcarifer Bloch) di Perairan Mimika Papua

Rosye H.R. Tanjung scopus  -  Universitas Cenderawasih, Indonesia
Suwito Suwito  -  Universitas Cenderawasih, Indonesia
Vita Purnamasari  -  Universitas Cenderawasih, Indonesia
*Suharno Suharno scopus  -  Universitas Cenderawasih, Indonesia
Received: 5 Feb 2019; Published: 9 Sep 2019.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Abstract

Kebutuhan bahan pangan sangat tergantung pada ketersediaanya di lingungan. Bahan pangan yang diperlukan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari harus sehat dan bebas dari bahan pencemar, termasuk logam berat. Ikan kakap putih (Lates calcarifer) sering dijumpai pada kawasan muara sungai di hampir seluruh wilayah Indonesia, bahkan di Papua. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji kandungan logam berat Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, As, dan Hg pada ikan kakap putih (L. calcarifer) yang hidup di perairan estuari Mimika Papua. Perairan estuari di Mimika diketahui sebagai salah satu daerah pengendapan pasir sisa tambang (tailing). Metode yang digunakan adalah survei dan analisis laboratorium kandungan logam berat pada tubuh ikan. Analisis Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, As, dan Hg ditentukan dengan spektroskopi serapan atom (AAS, Atomic Absorpsion Spectroscopy). Penentuan tingkat pencemaran logam berat dilakukan dengan Metode Standar APHA 3113 Cetac Technologies SPR IDA. Analisis data dilakukan dengan membandingkan kandungan logam berat dalam air dengan baku mutu air laut menurut SK MNLH No. 51 tahun 2004. Untuk kandungan logam berat pada organ tubuh ikan dibandingkan dengan kandungan maksimum logam berat berdasarkan SNI 7387: 2009 tentang batas maksimum cemaran logam berat bahan pangan. Kandungan logam berat pada ikan kakap putih masih tergolong aman dikonsumsi karena mengandung logam berat di bawah ambang batas baku mutu. Kondisi ini didukung oleh hasil analisis logam berat pada air yang menunjukkan masih dalam kondisi baik.  

 

Kata kunci: L. calcarifer, logam berat, Sungai Kamora, Sungai Ajkwa, Mimika.  

 

The need for food depends on the availability in the environment. Foods needed to meet daily needs should be healthy and free of pollutants, including heavy metals. White snapper (Lates calcarifer) is often found in the estuary of the river in almost all parts of Indonesia, even in Papua. The purpose of this research is to study the heavy metal content of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, As, and Hg on white snapper (L. calcarifer) which live in Mimika Papua estuary waters. The estuary waters of Mimika are known as one of the deposition areas of tailings sand. The method used is survey and laboratory analysis of heavy metal content in fish body. Analysis of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Hg was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Determination of the level of heavy metal contamination was done by Standard Method of APHA 3113 Cetac Technologies SPR IDA. Data analysis was done by comparing the heavy metal content in water with sea water quality standard according to SK MNLH No. 51 year 2004. For heavy metal content in fish body organs compared with maximum content of heavy metals based on SNI 7387: 2009 on the maximum limit of heavy metal food contamination. The content of heavy metals in white snapper is still considered safe for consumption because its below the quality standard threshold. This condition is supported by the results of heavy metal analysis on the water which shows still in good condition.

 

Key words: L. calcarifer, heavy metal, Kamora River, Ajkwa River, Mimika.

Keywords: L. calcarifer, logam berat, Sungai Kamora, Sungai Ajkwa, Mimika
Funding: SHR

Article Metrics:

  1. Ayeni, O.O., Ndakidemi, P.A., Snyman, R.G., and Odendaal, J.P. (2010). Chemical, biological and physiological indicators of metal pollution in wetlands: Review. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(15), 1938-1949
  2. Bates, M.N., Hamilton, J.W., LaKind, J.S., Langenbarg, P., O’Malley, M., and Snodgrass, W. (2005). Workgroup report: Biomonitoring study design, interpretation, and communicatioin–lessons learned and path forward. Environmental Healt Perspectives, 113(11), 22-29
  3. Connel, D.W., and Miller, G.J. (1995). Chemistry and ecotoxicology of pollution. A Wiley-Interscience Publication. Brisbane, Australia
  4. Darmono. (2001). Lingkungan hidup dan pencemaran hubungannya dengan toksikologi senyawa logam. Penerbit UI Press, Jakarta
  5. Fardiaz, S. (1992). Polusi air dan udara. Penerbit Kanisius. Yogyakarta
  6. Flammang, P., Warnau, M., Temara, A., Lane, D.J.W., and Jangoux, M. (1997). Heavy metals in Diadema Setosum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) from Singapore coral reefs. J. Sea Res., 38, 35–45
  7. Friedlova, M. (2010). The influence of heavy metal on soil bioloigical and chemical properties. Soil & Water Res., 5(1), 21-27
  8. Hutagalung. (1984). Logam berat dalam lingkungan laut. Pewarta Oseana, Vol 9 No 1, LON-LIPI. Jakarta
  9. Joiris, C.R. and Azokwu, M.I. (1999). Heavy metals in the Bivalve Anadara (Senilia) senilis from Nigeria. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38(7), 618-622
  10. Kobayashi, N and Okamura, H. (2004). Effects of heavy metals on sea urchin embryo development: Tracing the cause by the effects. Chemosphere, 55, 1403–1412
  11. Koester, Y. (1995). Kimia dan ekotoksikologi pencemaran. Terjemahan dari Chemistry and ecotoxicology of pollution oleh D.W. Connel. UI Press. Jakarta
  12. Laws, E.A. (1981). Aquatics pollution. John Wiley and Sons, New York
  13. Maslukah, L. (2006). Konsentrasi logam berat Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn dan pola sebarannya di Muara Banjir Kanal Barat, Semarang. [Thesis]. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor
  14. Mathew, G. (2009). Taxonomy, identification and biology of seabass (Lates calcarifer). National Training on 'Cage Culture of Seabass' held at CMFRI, Kochi. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, 14-23 December 2009
  15. MENLH. (2004). Keputusan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup Nomor 51/MENLH/2004 Tahun 2004 tentang Penetapan Baku Mutu Air Laut dalam Himpunan peraturan di Bidang Lingungan Hidup. Jakarta
  16. Millton, D.A., and Chenery, S.R. (2005). Movement patterns of barramundi Lates calcarifer, inferred from 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca ratios in otoliths, indicate non-participation in spawning. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 301, 279–291
  17. Nuraini, R.A.T., Endrawati, H., and Maulana, I.R. (2017). Analisis kandungan logam berat kromium (Cr) pada air, sedimen dan kerang hijau (Perna viridis) di perairan Trimulyo Semarang. Jurnal Kelautan Tropis, 20(1), 48–55
  18. Palar, H. (1994). Toksikologi logam berat. Penerbit Rinekacita. Jakarta
  19. Pender, P.J., and Griffin, R.K. (1996). Habitat history of barramundi Lates calcarifer in a North Australian River system based on barium and strontium levels in scales. Transactions of The American Fisheries Society, 125,679-689
  20. Prasetyo, B., Krisnayanti, B.D., Utomo, W.H., and Anderson, C.W.N., (2010). Rehabilitation of artisanal mining gold land in West Lombok, Indonesia. 2. Arbuscular mycorrhiza status of tailings and surrounding soils. J. Agric. Sci., 2(2), 202–209
  21. Prihatiningsih, W.R., and Suseno, H. (2009). Pengaruh salinitas pada bioakumulasi merkuri ikan bandeng (Chanos chanos) sebagai studi untuk menunjang keamanan pangan. Pusat Teknologi Limbah Radioaktif. Batam
  22. Puradyatmika, P., and Prewitt, J.M., (2012). Tailings reclamation trials at PT. Freeport Indonesia in Mimika, Papua, Indonesia. Proceeding of the Sevent International Conference on Mine Closure. Brisbane, 25–27 September 2012
  23. Purba, C., Ridlo, A., and Suprijanto, I. (2014). Kandungan logam berat Cd pada air, sedimen dan daging kerang hijau (Perna viridis) di perairan Tanjung Mas Semarang. Jurnal of Marine Research, 3(3), 285 - 293
  24. Russell, D.J., Thuesen, P.A., Thomson, F.E., and Power, T.N. (2013). Is stocking barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in north-eastern Queensland a threat to aquatic biodiversity? Marine and Freshwater Research, 64, 992–1002
  25. Siddik, M.A.B, Islam, M.A., Hanif, M.A., Chaklader, M.R., and Kleindienst, R. (2016). Barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790): A new dimension to the fish farming in Coastal Bangladesh. J Aquac Res Development, 7, 461. Doi: 10.4172/2155-9546.1000461
  26. Suharno, Sancayaningsih, R.P., Soetarto, E.S., and Kasiamdari, R.S. (2014). Keberadaan fungi mikoriza arbuskula di kawasan tailing tambang emas timika sebagai upaya rehabilitasi lahan ramah lingkungan. J. Manusia dan Lingkungan, 21(3), 295-303
  27. Surat Keputusan Direktur Jenderal Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan No. 03725/B/SK/89 tentang Batas Maksimum Cemaran Logam dalam Ikan dan Hasil Olahannya
  28. Temara, A., Skei, J.M., Gillan, D., Warnau, M., Jangoux, M., and Dubois, P. (1998). Validation of the Asteroid Asterias rubens (Echinodermata) as a bioindicator of spatial and temporean trends of Pb, Cd, and Zn contamination in the field. Mar. Environ. Res., 45(4), 341-356

Last update: 2021-03-01 23:00:30

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-03-01 23:00:33

No citation recorded.