TEKNIK BIOREMEDIASI SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF DALAM UPAYA PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN AIR

*Bambang Priadie -  *) Pusat Litbang Sumber Daya Air, Kementerian PU. Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 193 Bandung 40153. Tlp: 022 2501083, 2504035, Fax: 022 2500163, Email: bpriadie@yahoo.com, Indonesia
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Language: EN
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Abstract

ABSTRAK

Walaupun  telah diberlakukan berbagai macam kebijakan dan peraturan terkait dengan pengendalian pencemaran air,  namun penurunan kualitas badan air  masih terus berlangsung. Hal ini disebabkan karena lemahnya pengawasan dan penegakan hukum maupun teknologi pengendalian pencemaran air yang  berbasis pembubuhan bahan kimia masih belum bisa memenuhi kriteria yang diberlakukan.  Tulisan ini menguraikan proses bioremediasi  sebagai alternatif dalam upaya  pengendalian pencemaran air, meliputi: isolasi, pengujian  degradasi zat pencemar,  dan perbanyakan bakteri.  Hasil isolasi dan identifikasi yang berasal dari “bakteri indigenous”  didapatkan: Microccocus, Corynebacterium, Phenylo- bacterium, Enhydro- bacter, Morrococcus, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, dan Pseudomona, yang dapat mendegradasi logam Pb, nitrat, nitrit, bahan organik, sulfida, kekeruhan, dan amonia. Sedangkan dari   bakteri “commercial product”   didapatkan jenis: Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, serta enzym Amylase, Protease, Lipase, Esterase, Urease, Cellulase, dapat mendegradasi pencemar organik, nitrogen, fosfat, maupun kontrol pertumbuhan alga. Perbanyakan bakteri dari isolat bakteri indigenous dapat dikerjakan di laboratorium sedangkan bakteri “commercial product”  bisa didapatkan di pasaran umum.

Kata Kunci : bioremediasi, isolasi, pengujian,   identifikasi,  perbanyakan bakteri

ABSTRACT

Although  various policies and regulations related to water pollution control has been enacted,  decreasing of  water quality in water bodies are still ongoing. This is due to  the weakness of  monitoring and enforcement practices, as well as  pollution control technologies  in water-based chemicals, can not  achieve the affixing  standard. This paper aims to examine the process of bioremediation technologies, include:  isolation, degradation test, identification,  and bacterial multiplication. Isolation and identification results of “indigenous bacteria” includes: Microccocus, Corynebacterium, Phenylo-bacterium,-bacter Enhydro, Morrococcus, Flavobacterium, Bacillus,    Staphylococcus, and Pseudomonas, which can degrade the metals Pb, nitrate, nitrite, organic matter, sulfide, turbidity, and ammonia. Where as the bacteria  "commercial product" includes: Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, and the enzymes amylase, protease, lipase, esterase, Urease, Cellulase, may  degrade organic pollutants, nitrogen, phosphate, or control algae growth. Multiplication of bacteria from the indigenous bacterial isolates can be done in the laboratory while the commercial bacterial product can be found in the general market.

Keywords: bioremediation, isolation,  bacterial testing,   identification,  bacterial multiplication

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