Perubahan Tutupan Lahan Akibat Ekspansi Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit: Dampak Sosial, Ekonomi dan Ekologi

*Rizka Amalia  -  Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia
Arya Hadi Dharmawan  -  Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia
Lilik Budi Prasetyo  -  Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia
Pablo Pacheco  -  World Wildlife Fund (WWF), United States
Received: 25 Mar 2019; Published: 29 May 2019.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Abstract

Perkebunan kelapa sawit berdampak negatif pada aspek-aspek lingkungan, sosial dan ekonomi komunitas lokal. Melalui peningkatan system tata kelola perkebunan kelapa sawit maka dapat mengurangi dampak negatif tersebut. System tata kelola seperti sertifikasi dan standar-standar keberlanjutan diinisiasi oleh produser, distributor, pemerintah, akademisi, pasar internasional dan LSM. Sistem tata kelola ini dapat mencakup skala global atau nasional. Indonesia telah mengimplementasikan system tata kelola yang berskala global dan nasional namun belum semua perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit dan smallholder mengimplementasikanya. Oleh karena itu, sistem tata kelola tersebut belum berhasil menurunkan dampak negatif ekspansi perkebunan kelapa sawit. Konflik sosial masih sering terjadi akibat dari kebakaran hutan dan pencemaran lingkungan. Di Kutai Kartanegara, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia, ekspansi perkebunan kelapa sawit terjadi secara cepat dimana ekspansi tersebut ada yang tidak menerapkan sistem tata kelola perkebunan kelapa sawit. Menggunakan metode survey dan wawancara mendalam, penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur dampak ekspansi perkebunan kelapa sawit pada kerentanan ekologi, sosial dan ekonomi.  Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa (1) RSPO dan ISPO belum bisa menekan laju deforestasi akibat ekspansi perkebunan kelapa sawit; (2) Walaupun RSPO dan ISPO diimplementasikan, masih tetap terjadi konflik sosial dan kerentanan ekonomi pada komunitas lokal. 

 

Keywords: Sistem tata kelola; Indonesia; smallholder; ISPO; Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit; RSPO
Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation

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