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Emisi Karbon Dioksida (CO2) dari Pertanian Skala Kecil di Lahan Gambut

Universitas Tanjungpura, Indonesia

Published: 30 Nov 2020.
Editor(s): Sudarno Utomo

Citation Format:
Abstract

Pembukaan lahan gambut menyebabkan emisi gas karbon dioksida (CO2) ke atmosfer, termasuk alih fungsi hutan rawa gambut menjadi pertanian rakyat (skala kecil).Tujuan penelitian untuk mengukur emisi CO2 dari pertanian skala kecil di lahan gambut, yaitu perkebunan karet (Hevea brasiliensis) berumur 8-10 tahun, kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) berumur 5-6 tahun, dan jahe (Zingiber officinale) berumur 0-6 bulan. Sampel gas CO2 diambil dengan metode sungkup tertutup (closed chamber). Pengukuran konsentrasi gas CO2 dilakukan dengan gas kromatografi. Sungkup ditempatkan pada dua kondisi lahan, yaitu perlakuan pemotongan akar (trenching) untuk mewakili respirasi heterotrofik, dan tanpa pemotongan akar untuk mewakili respirasi total. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa emisi CO2 dari pertanian rakyat memiliki kontribusi dalam meningkatkan konsentrasi CO2 di atmosfer. Total emisi CO2 dari kebun karet, kelapa sawit dan jahe, masing-masing sebesar 42,6 ton CO2 ha-1 th-1, 35,9 ton CO2 ha-1 th-1, dan 34,4 ton CO2 ha-1 th-1. Nilai respirasi heterotrofik dari kebun karet diperkirakan sebesar 61,4%, dan kelapa sawit 57,4%.  Pemotongan akar (trenching) pada pertanian jahe tidak efektif karena sistem perakaran serabut yang tidak menyebar jauh, sehingga respirasi heterotropik tidak dapat dipisahkan dari respirasi total.   Muka air tanah menunjukan hubungan yang negatif terhadap nilai emisi (r = -0,197, p-value = 0,023) dari ketiga penggunaan lahan. Besarnya emisi carbon dari pertanian skala kecil pada lahan gambut yang terdrainase mendekati nilai patokan (default value) IPCC 2014, yang antara 40 – 73 ton CO2 ha-1 th-1. Pengendalian emisi karbon dari pertanian skala kecil pada laham gambut berkontribusi penting dalam upaya untuk mencapai target penurunan emisi gas rumah kaca dari sektor pertanian.

ABSTRACT

Conversion of peatland to smallholder agriculture leads carbon dioxide (CO2) emission into the atmosphere. This research aims to measure CO2 emissions from smallholder agriculture on tropical peatlands used for rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) 8-10 years, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) 5-6 years,  and ginger (Zingiber officinale) 0-6 months. We collected gas samples from a closed chamber and measured CO2 emissions for four months, using gas chromatography. We separated heterotrophic from total respiration by trenching. The results showed that CO2 emissions from smallholder agriculture had a contribution to increase the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Carbon emissions were 42.6 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1, 35,9 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1, and 34,4 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 from rubber, oil palm, and ginger. The estimated autotrophic respiration in rubber and oil palm plantations was 38,6% and 42,8%, respectively. Water table depth shows a negative correlation to the CO2 emission (r = -0,197, p-value = 0,023). In conclusion, this research found a large carbon emission from small-scale agriculture on tropical peatlands, which is almost similar to carbon emission from other large-scale commercial plantations on drained tropical peat according to the 2014 IPCC default value, which ranges 40-73 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1. Reducing carbon emission from small scale agricultures on peatlands would significantky contribute to achieve the reduction of green house gas target in agricultural sector.

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Keywords: Pertanian skala kecil, Lahan gambut, Kelapa sawit, Karet, Jahe, Emisi CO2

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