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Komunitas Terumbu Karang dan Ikan Karang di Pantai Tanjung, Kabupaten Muna, Sulawesi Tenggara

1Postgraduate Program of Biology, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Jl. Teknika Selatan Sekip Utara Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

2Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Teknika Selatan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Received: 19 Apr 2022; Revised: 17 Jun 2022; Accepted: 30 Jul 2022; Available online: 30 Sep 2022; Published: 1 Oct 2022.
Editor(s): Budi Warsito

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Abstract

Terumbu karang merupakan pendukung kehidupan berbagai jenis ikan dan biota laut, maka keberadaan terumbu karang tidak terlepas dari aktivitas manusia. Pantai Tanjung merupakan salah satu wilayah pesisir di Kecamatan Tongkuno, Kabupaten Muna, Sulawesi Tenggara merupakan wilayah yang berbatasan dengan selat Buton dan memiliki sumberdaya perikanan yang cukup tinggi, dimana sekitar 80% masyarakat di daerah ini berprofesi sebagai nelayan. Oleh karena itu, tujuan penelitian ini yaitu mempelajari jenis karang dan ikan karang, kelimpahan, keanekaragaman, menghitung persentase tutupan karang, dan mengkaji kondisi status terumbu karang. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode Line Intercept Transect (LIT) dan Coral Reef Fish Visual Census (CRFVC) pada dua stasiun penelitian yang terdiri dari stasiun I kedalaman 3 meter dan stasiun II kedalaman 10 meter. Transek sepanjang dua puluh meter sebanyak lima transek diletakkan disetiap zonasi kedalaman, sehingga total transek ada sepuluh transek dengan total panjang transek seratus meter masing-masing stasiun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tercatat 103 jenis karang dari 12 famili dan 44 jenis ikan karang dari 15 famili. Kelimpahan ikan karang tebesar pada kedalaman 3 m berasal dari famili Pomacentridae sebesar 31,03%, dan kedalaman 10 m berasal dari famili Pomacentridae dan Scaridae sebesar 15,63%. Indeks keanekaragaman jenis karang pada kedalaman 3 m sebesar (3,83) dan kedalaman 10 m sebesar (3,87). Sebaliknya keanekaragaman jenis ikan karang pada kedalaman 3 m sebesar (2,83) dan kedalaman 10 m (3,09). Persentase tutupan terumbu karang pada kedalaman 3 m diperoleh hasil sebesar 85,97% dan kedalaman 10 m sebesar 83,21%. Secara umum menggambarkan kondisi terumbu karang di perairan Pantai Tanjung Kabupaten Muna Sulawesi tenggara termasuk dalam kategori sangat baik.

 

Coral reefs support the life of various types of fish and marine life, so the existence of coral reefs cannot be separated from human activities. Tanjung Beach is one of the coastal areas in Tongkuno Subdistrict, Muna Regency, Southeast Sulawesi. It is an area that borders the Buton Strait and has quite high fishery resources, where about 80% of the people in this area work as fishermen. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to study the types of corals and reef fish, their abundance, and diversity, calculate the percentage of coral cover and assess the condition of the status of coral reefs. This research was conducted using the Line Intercept Transect (LIT) and Coral Reef Fish Visual Census (CRFVC) methods at two research stations consisting of station I with a depth of 3 meters and station II with a depth of 10 meters. A twenty-meter transect consisting of five transects is placed in each depth zone so that there are a total of ten transects with a total transect length of one hundred meters for each station. The results showed that there were 103 species of coral from 12 families and 44 species of reef fish from 15 families. The greatest abundance of reef fish at a depth of 3 m came from the Pomacentridae family by 31.03%, and at 10 m from the Pomacentridae and Scaridae families by 15.63%. The index of coral species diversity at a depth of 3 m is (3.83) and at a depth of 10 m is (3.87). On the other hand, the diversity of reef fish species at a depth of 3 m is (2.83) and at a depth of 10 m (3.09). The percentage of coral reef cover at a depth of 3 m obtained results of 85.97% and at a depth of 10 m of 83.21%. In general, describing the condition of coral reefs in the waters of Tanjung Beach, Muna Regency, Southeast Sulawesi, is included in the very good category.

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