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Literature Review: Penggunaan Bahan Berbasis Limbah Sebagai Adsorben untuk Degradasi Zat Warna pada Air Limbah

Departemen Teknik Sipil, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI Depok, Jawa Barat 16424, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2023 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Penggunaan adsorben bahan limbah dari limbah pertanian, industri maupun bahan alam menjadi alternatif baru dalam pengolahan air limbah yang mengandung zat warna. Limbah ini dapat menyebabkan berbagai masalah kesehatan bagi makhluk hidup mulai dari alergi, cidera permanen, asma, bahkan kanker. Tujuan review artikel ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tren penelitian penggunaan adsorben dari bahan limbah dalam penyisihan zat warna serta informasi mengenai komposisi bahan, dan pengaplikasiannya sebagai potensi alternatif baru bahan adsorben dalam pengolahan limbah.

Metode: Metode dalam penulisan review artikel ini dengan metode PRISMA 2020 menggunakan  PRISMA checklist melalui 27 identifikator yang telah disediakan. Seleksi artikel dilakukan dengan beberapa kriteria dari tahun publikasi, kata kunci, klasifikasi bahan adsorben, serta artikel tentang adsorpsi secara umum sebagai pendukung. Artikel jurnal terpilih dan sesuai dengan kebutuhan sebanyak 28 artikel kemudian dilakukan pengkajian serta pembahasan lebih lanjut.

Hasil: Hasil review artikel yang dikaji sebanyak 50% artikel yang memanfaatkan limbah pertanian sebagai adsorben, 18% artikel memanfaatkan limbah industri, dan 32% artikel memanfaatkan bahan alam. Pengkajian dilakukan menyeluruh mengenai metode pembuatan adsorben, komposisi bahan adsorben, kemampuan adsorpsi, studi kinetika dan studi isotherm adsorpsi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan kemampuan adsorben bahan limbah sangat baik dengan efisiensi tertinggi hingga 99,95%. Metode pembuatan adsorben yang paling umum digunakan dengan aktivasi fisika. Model isotherm yang digunakan sebagian besar adalah Langmuir dengan kinetika adsorpsi pseudo orde kedua.

Simpulan: Potensi pemanfaatan adsorben dari bahan limbah sangat besar, ditinjau dari persentase efisiensinya dan kelimpahan bahan baku. Dalam proses adsorpsinya dipengaruhi oleh kandungan bahan, luas permukaan, dan metode pembuatan adsorben.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Literature Review:  The Use of Waste Materials as Adsorbent for Degradation Dyes in Wastewater

Background: Industrial, agricultural, and natural dyes can now be treated with adsorbents. This wastewater can cause allergies, serious wounds, asthma, and cancer. This article review discusses current research trends in using waste materials as dye removal adsorbents and their composition and possible usage as new, alternative adsorbents in the waste treatment sector.

Method: This article review used PRISMA 2020 with 27 identifiers and the checklist. Articles were selected by year, keywords, adsorbent material categorization, and adsorption in general. Following 28 article requirements, selected journal articles were researched and discussed.

Result: The analysis of the articles found that 32% of the articles used natural materials, 18% of the articles used industrial waste, and 50% of the articles used agricultural waste as an adsorbent. The process for creating adsorbents, the make-up of adsorbent materials, adsorption capacity, kinetic studies, and adsorption isotherm studies were all thoroughly evaluated. The study's findings demonstrate that waste materials have excellent adsorbent properties, with the highest efficiency reaching up to 99.95%. Physical activation is the most widely used adsorbent preparation technique. Most of the isotherm models in use have pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics and are Langmuir.

Conclusion: Given the percentage of efficiency and the abundance of raw materials, there is a very large potential for using adsorbents made from waste materials. The adsorbent's surface area, material composition, and manufacturing process all have an impact on the adsorption process.

 

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Keywords: Zat Warna; Adsorpsi; Limbah Pertanian; Limbah Industri; Bahan alam

Article Metrics:

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