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Penyisihan BOD, Minyak Dan Lemak Dalam Air Limbah Domestik Dengan Menggunakan Karbon Aktif Dari Kulit Pisang

1Program Magister Teknik Lingkungan, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

2Departemen Teknik Lingkungan, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2024 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: BOD, minyak dan lemak dalam air limbah domestik berbahaya bagi lingkungan. Polutan tersebut dapat dihilangkan dengan teknik adsorpsi menggunakan karbon aktif kulit pisang dengan efisiensi mencapai 70%. Tujuan penelitian yaitu mengkaji pengaruh dosis karbon aktif dan waktu kontak terhadap penyisihan BOD, minyak dan lemak, serta kinetika adsorpsinya, morfologi permukaan dan unsur kimia karbon aktif kulit pisang.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama dosis karbon (1,5 g, 3 g, 4,5 g) dan faktor kedua waktu kontak (30, 60, dan 90 menit), dengan 2 ulangan. Percobaan adsorpsi menggunakan sistem batch dengan gelas beker. Parameter penelitian meliputi BOD yang dianalisis dengan titrasi iodometri (SNI-6989.72:2009), serta minyak dan lemak dengan metode gravimetri (SNI-6989.10:2011). Analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif yang meliputi efisiensi penyisihan, kinetika adsorpsi, morfologi permukaan dan elemen karbon aktif.   

Hasil: : Dosis karbon aktif dan waktu kontak mampu menyisihkan BOD, minyak dan lemak hingga 24% dan 97%. Kinetika adsorpsi pseudo-second-order dengan R2 0,98 dan 0,99 menggambarkan adsorpsi BOD, minyak dan lemak. Karbon aktif sebelum adsorpsi pori-porinya terbuka dan permukaannya bersih, sedangkan setelah adsorpsi pori-porinya tertutup, permukaan padat, dan bergelombang. Elemen karbon sebelum adsorpsi terdiri dari C, O, K sebesar 76,53%, 19,46%, 2,24%, dan setelah adsorpsi terdiri dari C 78,94% dan O 19,87%.

Simpulan: Dosis karbon dan waktu kontak berpengaruh terhadap penyisihan BOD, minyak dan lemak. Kinetika adsorpsi pseudo-second-order menggambarkan adsorpsi BOD, minyak dan lemak. Morfologi permukaan dan unsur karbon aktif sebelum dan sesudah adsorpsi berbeda.

 

Title: Removal of BOD, Oil and Grease in Domestic Wastewater Using Activated Carbon from Banana Peels

Background: BOD, oil and grease in domestic wastewater are harmful to the environment. These pollutants can be removed  with adsorption techniques by activated carbons using banana  peels with an efficiency  up to 70%. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of activated carbon doses and the contact time on BOD, oil and grease removal, as well as the kinetics of adsorption, surface morphology and chemical elements  from banana peel activated carbon.

Method: This experiment used a factorial completely randomized design. The first factor was carbon dosage (1.5 g, 3 g, 4.5 g) and the second was contact time (30, 60, and 90 minutes), with 2 replications. The adsorption experiment used a batch system with a glass beaker. The research parameters included BOD analyzed by iodometric titration (SNI-6989.72:2009), and oil and grease by gravimetric method (SNI-6989.10:2011). Data analysis using descriptive analysis which includes removal efficiency, adsorption kinetics, surface morphology and activated carbon elements.

Result: The activated carbon dosage and contact time removed BOD, oil and grease up to 24% and 97%, respectively. Pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetics with R2 0.98 and 0.99 described the adsorption of BOD, oil and grease. Activated carbon before adsorption had open pores and a clean surface, while after adsorption the pores were closed, and the surface was solid and ridged. The carbon element before adsorption consists of C, O, and K at 76.53%, 19.46%, and 2.24%, and after adsorption consists of C at 78.94% and O at 19.87%.

Conclusion: Carbon dosage and contact time affected the removal of BOD, oil and grease. The pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetics described the adsorption of BOD, oil and grease. The surface morphologies and elements from activated carbon before and after adsorption  as different.

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Keywords: Adsorpsi; Air Limbah Domestik; Karbon Aktif; Kulit Pisang

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