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Karakteristik Risiko Kesehatan Non Karsinogenik Akibat Paparan Gas SO2 dan NO2 pada Pemulung di TPA Jatibarang Kota Semarang

Bagian Kesehatan Lingkungan, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2024 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Timbulan sampah di TPA Jatibarang Kota Semarang tahun 2022 didominasi sampah sisa makanan dengan peresentase sebesar 60,79%. Dekomposisi anaerob menghasilkan gas berbahaya seperti CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O, SO2 dan NO2 yang dapat mencemari udara dan menganggu sistem pernapasan. Pemulung yang bekerja dan bertempat tinggal di area TPA Jatibarang menjadi kelompok berisiko mengalami gangguan sistem pernapasan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis risiko kesehatan lingkungan paparan gas SO2 dan NO2 pada pemulung di TPA Jatibarang.

Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan observasional analitik dengan pendekatan ARKL. Populasi subjek berjumlah 250 pemulung dan sampel subjek sebanyak 77 pemulung dengan pengambilan sampel secara sistem random sampling. Sampel objek yaitu udara ambien pada 5 titik di TPA Jatibarang yang didapatkan dari arah mata angin dominan. Analisis data yang dilakukan adalah analisis univariat dan analisis risiko kesehatan lingkungan.

Hasil: Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan konsentrasi gas SO2 memiliki rata-rata  49,78 µg/Nm3, minimal 47,1 µg/Nm3, maksimal 53,6 µg/Nm3, dan standar deviasi 2,37. Konsentrasi gas NO2 memiliki rata-rata 70,66 µg/Nm3, minimal 69,2 µg/Nm3, maksimal 71,6 µg/Nm3, dan standar deviasi 1,09. Rata-rata lama pajanan 8,78 jam/hari, frekuensi pajanan 325,71 hari/tahun, durasi pajanan 11 tahun, dan berat badan 57,05 kg. Intake akibat paparan gas SO2 pada pemulung memiliki rata-rata  0,0070 mg/kg/hari (realtime) dan 0,0161 mg/kg/hari (lifetime), untuk paparan gas NO2 memiliki rata-rata  0,0099 mg/kg/hari (realtime) dan 0,0228 mg/kg/hari (lifetime).

Simpulan: Karakteristik risiko kumulatif non karsinogenik proyeksi realtime menunjukkan sebanyak 27 (35,06%) pemulung memiliki RQkum>1 dan proyeksi lifetime 76 (98,70%) pemulung memiliki RQkum>1 berarti terdapat risiko gangguan kesehatan non karsinogenik akibat pajanan gas SO2 dan NO2.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Health Risk Assessment for Non-Carcinogenic SO2 and NO2 Exposure to Scavengers at Jatibarang Landfill Semarang City

Background: Waste generation at the Jatibarang Landfill Semarang City in 2022 is dominated by food waste with a percentage of 60.79%. Anaerobic decomposition produces dangerous gases such as CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O, SO2, and NO2 which can pollute the air and disrupt the respiratory system. Scavengers who work and live in the Jatibarang landfill area are at risk of experiencing respiratory system problems. This study aims to analyze the environmental health risks of exposure to SO2 and NO2 gases among scavengers at the Jatibarang landfill.

Methods: This research is an analytical observational research using the EHRA approach. The subject population was 250 scavengers and 77 scavengers as subjects using a system random sampling. The object samples are ambient air at 5 points at the Jatibarang Landfill obtained from the dominant cardinal direction. The data analysis carried out was univariate analysis and environmental health risk analysis.

Results: The measurement results show that the SO2 gas concentration averages 49.78 µg/Nm3, a minimum of 47.1 µg/Nm3, a maximum of 53.6 µg/Nm3, and a standard deviation of 2.37. NO2 gas concentration has an average of 70.66 µg/Nm3, a minimum of 69.2 µg/Nm3, a maximum of 71.6 µg/Nm3, and a standard deviation of 1.09. The average duration of exposure was 8.78 hours/day, frequency of exposure 325.71 days/year, duration of exposure 11 years, and body weight 57.05 kg. Intake due to exposure to SO2 gas in scavengers has an average of 0.0070 mg/kg/day (real-time) and 0.0161 mg/kg/day (lifetime), for exposure to NO2 gas has an average of 0.0099 mg/kg/ day (realtime) and 0.0228 mg/kg/day (lifetime).

Conclusion: The cumulative non-carcinogenic risk characteristics for realtime projections show that as many as 27 scavengers (35.06%) have an RQcum >1 and for a lifetime projection 76  (98.70%) scavengers have an RQcum >1, which means there is a risk of non-carcinogenic health problems due to exposure SO2 and NO2 gases.

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Keywords: SO2; NO2; pemulung; TPA Jatibarang

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