skip to main content

Antiretroviral Side Effects on Adherence in People Living with HIV/AIDS

*Gede Arya Bagus Arisudhana orcid  -  Postgraduate Program in Nursing, Department of Nursing, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Muchlis Achsan Udji Sofro  -  Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Untung Sujianto  -  Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 Nurse Media Journal of Nursing

Citation Format:

Background: Antiretroviral therapy is a lifelong treatment in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Adherence is the key to the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy. The administration of antiretroviral has some side effects that may affect patient adherence.

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the impacts of antiretroviral side effects on adherence in PLWHA.

Methods: This study used a correlational research design. The samples were 78 patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at the tropical disease and infection polyclinic in a hospital in Semarang. Purposive sampling was used to recruit the samples. Data on side effects of antiretroviral were obtained based on the patients’ reports, while data on adherence of pill consumption were obtained through the calculation of pills using pill count adherence rate. The collected data were analyzed using the Fisher’s exact test.

Results: Results showed that the side effects of antiretroviral therapy influenced the antiretroviral adherence (p<0.001). Most of the side effects of antiretroviral reported by participants were nausea and dizziness. Some participants also reported weakness, difficult to concentrate, and diarrhea.

Conclusion: The side effects of antiretroviral had negative impacts on patients’ antiretroviral therapy adherence. Therefore, nurses and health care providers of PLWHA should be able to recognize and give concern on antiretroviral side effect management.
Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Adherence; antiretroviral; PLWHA; side effect

Article Metrics:

  1. Achieng, L., Musangi, H., Billingsley, K., Onguit, S., Ombegoh, E., Bryant, L., … Keiser, P. (2013). The use of pill counts as a facilitator of adherence with antiretroviral therapy in resource limited settings. PLoS ONE, 8(12), 1-6
  2. Al-Dakkak, I., Patel, S., McCann, E., Gadkari, A., Prajapati, G., & Maiese, E. M. (2013). The impact of specific HIV treatment-related adverse events on adherence to antiretroviral therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 25(4), 400-414
  3. Anderson, G. D. (2008). Gender differences in pharmacological response. International Review of Neurobiology, 83(8), 1-10
  4. Chen, W. T., Shiu, C. S., Yang, J. P., Simoni, J. M., Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I., Lee, T. S. H., & Zhao, H. (2013). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) side effect impacted on quality of life, and depressive symptomatology: A mixed-method study. Journal of AIDS and Clinical Research, 4(3), 218-234
  5. Directorate General of Disease Control and Environmental Health. (2011). National guidelines for clinical management of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy in adults (2011th ed.). Jakarta: Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia
  6. Directorate General of Disease Control and Environmental Health. (2016). Statistics of HIV / AIDs case in Indonesia first quarter of 2016 (2016th ed.). Jakarta: Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia
  7. Eluwa, G. I., Badru, T., & Akpoigbe, K. J. (2012). Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral therapy (ARVs): incidence, type and risk factors in Nigeria. BMC Clinical Pharmacology, 12(7), 1-9
  8. Joshi, B., Chauhan, S., Pasi, A., Kulkarni, R., Sunil, N., Bachani, D., & Mankeshwar, R. (2014). Level of suboptimal adherence to first line antiretroviral treatment & its determinants among HIV positive people in India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 140(JUL), 84-95
  9. Kammerer, J., Garry, G., Hartigan, M., Carter, B., & Erlich, L. (2007). Adherence in patients on dialysis: Strategies for success. Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses’ Association, 34(5), 479-486
  10. Latif, F., Maria, I. L., & Syafar, M. (2014). Efek samping obat terhadap kepatuhan pengobatan antiretroviral orang dengan HIV / AIDS [Drug Side Effects on Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment among People Living with HIV/AIDS]. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional, 9(2), 101-106
  11. Masenyetse, L. J., Manda, S., & Mwambi, H. G. (2015). An assessment of adverse drug reactions among HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. AIDS Research and Therapy, 12(1), 6
  12. Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2012). Guidelines for sustainable implementation of HIV-IMS services (2012th ed.). Jakarta: Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia
  13. Okoronkwo, I., Okeke, U., Chinweuba, A., & Iheanacho, P. (2013). Nonadherence factors and sociodemographic characteristics of hiv-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria. International Scholarly Research Notices AIDS, 2013, 1-8
  14. Rudy, B. J., Murphy, D. A., Harris, D. R., Muenz, L., & Ellen, J. (2009). Patient-related risks for nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected youth in the United States: A study of prevalence and interactions. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 23(3), 185-194
  15. Semarang City Health Office. (2015). Health profile of Semarang City 2015 (2015th ed.). Semarang: Semarang City Health Office
  16. Teklay, G. (2013). Adverse effects and regimen switch among patients on antiretroviral treatment in a resource limited setting in Ethiopia. Journal of Pharmacovigilance, 1(4), 1-5
  17. UNAIDS. (2016). Prevention Gap Report 2016. Geneva. Retrieved from
  18. Wakibi, S. N., Ng, Z. W., & Mbugua, G. G. (2011). Factors associated with non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS Research and Therapy, 8(43), 1-8
  19. Wu, P., Johnson, B. A., Nachega, J. B., Wu, B., Ordóñez, C. E., Hare, A. Q., … Marconi, V. C. (2015). The combination of pill count and self-reported adherence is a strong predictor of first-line ART failure for adults in South Africa. Current HIV Research, 27(4), 1251-1265

Last update:

  1. Adverse Drug Reactions to Antiretroviral Therapy in Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria

    Elias Adikwu, Ochayi Adikwu, Phil Inga. Journal of Research in Applied and Basic Medical Sciences, 8 (4), 2022. doi: 10.52547/rabms.8.4.189
  2. Studi Fenomenologi: Pengalaman Orang dengan HIV/AIDS (ODHA) yang Menjalani Terapi Antiretroviral

    Nailiy Huzaimah, Iva Gamar Dian Pratiwi. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan, 2 (1), 2020. doi: 10.36590/jika.v2i1.47
  3. HIV/AIDS patients’ knowledge, attitude, and practice toward anti-retroviral therapy medications’ adverse effects and associated factors in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital

    Zenebe Negash, Yohannes Yibeltal, Akeberegn Gorems Ayele. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, 14 , 2023. doi: 10.1177/20420986231194752
  4. People living with HIV/AIDS’s experiences receiving antiretroviral therapy: a phenomenological study

    Nailiy Huzaimah, Iva Gamar Dian Pratiwi. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan (JIKA), 2 (1), 2020. doi: 10.36590/jika.v2i1.47

Last update: 2024-07-14 08:08:57

No citation recorded.