Determinants of Stunting in Children Aged 12-59 Months

*Erna Julianti  -  Department of Child Nursing, Pangkalpinang Nursing Academy Bangka Belitung, Indonesia
Elni Elni  -  Department of Child Nursing, Pangkalpinang Nursing Academy Bangka Belitung, Indonesia
Received: 6 Oct 2019; Revised: 24 Apr 2020; Accepted: 27 Apr 2020; Published: 27 Apr 2020; Available online: 28 Apr 2020.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 Nurse Media Journal of Nursing
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Articles
Language: EN
Statistics: 237 214
Abstract

Background: Stunting is one of the priority nutritional issues in Indonesia. It is one of the chronic malnutrition effects in children which will have a long-term impact on the growth and cross-generation of mothers through the cycle of stunting syndrome.

Purpose: This study aimed to identify the determinant factors of stunting in children aged 12-59 months.

Methods: Quantitative research with a cross-sectional approach was employed in this study, involving 205 respondents recruited using a consecutive sampling technique. Data were collected using the z scores and questionnaires for children aged 12-59 months, food trust questionnaire, feeding practice questionnaire and child eating habits questionnaire. The Chi Square test and multivariable logistic regression were performed for the data analysis.

Results: Children who were not exclusively breastfed and had major infectious disease had a higher risk of stunting for 53.8% and 40.9%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the history of exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.001, OR=2.28), the history of infection (p=0.013, OR= 2.27), and eating habits (p=0.04, OR=1.55) with stunting in children.

Conclusion: There is a relationship between the history of exclusive breastfeeding, the history of infection and eating habits of children with stunting. The formation of a peer group community of children aged 12-59 months is expected to prevent and overcome stunting and improve nutritional status and optimal development of the children.

Keywords: Children aged 12-59 months, stunting, breastfeeding, infection, eating habit

Article Metrics:

  1. Abeway, S., Gebremichael, B., Murugan, R., Assefa, M., & Adinew, Y. M. (2018). Stunting and its determinants among children aged 6-59 months in Northern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2018, 1078480. doi: 10.1155/2018/1078480
  2. Ballard, O., & Morrow, A. L. (2013). Human milk composition: Nutrients and bioactive factors. Pediatric Obesity, 60(1), 49-74. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.10.002
  3. Ban, L., Guo, S., Scherpbier, R. W., Wang, X., Zhou, H., & Tata, L. J. (2017). Child feeding and stunting prevalence in left-behind children: a descriptive analysis of data from a central and western Chinese population. International Journal of Public Health, 62(1), 143-151. doi: 10.1007/s00038-016-0844-6
  4. Batiro, B., Demissie, T., Halala, Y., & Anjulo, A. A. (2017). Determinants of stunting among children aged 6-59 months at Kindo Didaye woreda, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Unmatched case control study. PloS One, 12(12), e0189106. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189106
  5. Biondi, D. J. (2007). Nutrient intake adequacy and child stunting status in Kabarole district, Western Uganda. Nursing & Allied Health Database. (ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global). Retrieved from https://remote-lib.ui.ac.id:2063/docview/304790933?accountid=17242
  6. Birch, L. L., Fisher, J. O., Grimm-Thomas, K., Markey, C. N., Sawyer, R., & Johnson, S. L. (2001). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire: A measure of parental attitudes, beliefs and practices about child feeding and obesity proneness. Appetite, 201-210. doi: 10.1006/appe.2001.0398
  7. Bove, I., Miranda, T., Campoy, C., Uauy, R., & Napol, M. (2012). Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case. Early Human Development, 88(9), 747-751. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2012.04.002
  8. Ek, A., Sorjonen, K., Eli, K., Lindberg, L., Nyman, J., Marcus, C., & Nowicka, P. (2016). Associations between parental concerns about preschoolers’ weight and eating and parental feeding practices: Results from analyses of the child eating habit questionnaire, the child feeding questionnaire, and the lifestyle behavior checklist. PLoS One, 11(1), 1-20. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147257
  9. Guerrant, R. L., DeBoer, M. D., Moore, S. R., Scharf, R. J., & Lima, A. A. (2013). The impoverished gut--a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease. Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 10(4), 220-229. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2012.239
  10. Himaz, R. (2018). Stunting later in childhood and outcomes as a young adult: Evidence from India. World Development, 104, 344-357. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.019
  11. Illahi, R. K., & Muniroh, L. (2016). Gambaran sosio budaya gizi etnik Madura [An illustration of the socio-cultural nutritional culture of Madura]. Media Gizi Indonesia, 11(2), 135-143.
  12. Kismul, H., Acharya, P., Mapatano, M. A., & Hatløy, A. (2017). Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4621-0
  13. Koini, S. M., Ochola, S., & Oggada, I. A. (2019). Social-cultural factors and complementary feeding of children 6-23 months among the Maasai in Narok South Kenya. Journal of Health, 62, 170-177. doi: 10.7176/JHMN
  14. Ma, G. (2015). Food, eating behavior, and culture in Chinese society. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 2(4), 195-199. doi: 10.1016/j.jef.2015.11.004
  15. Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia [MoHRI]. (2018). Pusat data dan informasi: Situasi balita pendek (Stunting) di Indonesia [Data and information center: Short toddler situation (Stunting) in Indonesia]. Buletin Jendela Data dan Informasi. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI.
  16. Nurbaiti, L., Adi, A. C., Devi, S. R., & Harthana, T. (2014). Kebiasaan makan balita stunting pada masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK) [Stunting toddler eating habits in the Sasak tribe: Overview of the first 1000 days of life]. Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, 27(2), 109-117.
  17. Pang, W. W., Tan, P. T., Cai, S., Fok, D., Chua, M. C., Lim, S. B., ... & Gluckman, P. D. (2019). Nutrients or nursing? Understanding how breast milk feeding affects child cognition. European Journal of Nutrition, 59(2), 609-619. doi: 10.1007/s00394-019-01929-2
  18. Pokhrel, K., Nanishi, K., Poudel, K. C., Pokhrel, K. G., Tiwari, K., & Jimba, M. (2016). Undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months and children in Nepal: maternal health services and their roles to prevent it. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 20(10), 2037-2049. doi: 10.1007/s10995-016-2023-z
  19. Public Health Office of Bangka Belitung Islands Province (2017). Profil kesehatan Provinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung [Health profile of the Bangka Belitung Islands Province]. Pangkalpinang: Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung.
  20. Rahman, N., Napirah, M. R., Nadila, D., & Bohari. (2017). Determinants of stunting among children in urban families in Palu, Indonesia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 16(10), 750-756. doi: 10.3923/pjn.2017.750.756
  21. Saavedra, J. M., & Dattilo, A. M. (2016). Nutrition in the first 1000 days of life: Society’s greatest opportunity. Early nutrition and long-term health: Mechanisms, consequences, and opportunities. Oxford: Elsevier.
  22. Setiawan, E., Machmud, R., & Masrul, M. (2018). Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting pada anak usia 24-59 bulan di wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Andalas Kecamatan Padang Timur Kota Padang tahun 2018 [Factors related to the incidence of stunting in children aged 24-59 months in the working area of Andalas Public Health Center, Padang Timur District, Padang City in 2018]. Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas, 7(2), 275-284.
  23. United Nations Children’s Fund, the World Health Organization and World Bank Group (2017). Level and Trends in Child Malnutrition: UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates. Washington DC: United Nations Children’s Fund, the World Health Organization and World Bank Group.
  24. United Nations Children’s Fund. (2017). First 1000 days: The critical window to ensure that children survive and thrive. South Africa: United Nations Children’s Fund.
  25. Victora, C. G., Adair, L., Fall, C., Hallal, P. C., Martorell, R., Richter, L., …, & Scadev, H. S. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: Consequences for adult health and human capital. The Lancet, 371(9609), 340-357. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61692-4
  26. Williams, A. M., & Suchdev, P. S. (2017). Assessing and improving childhood nutrition and growth globally. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 64(4), 755-768. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2017.03.001
  27. Zanello, G., Srinivasan, C. S., & Shankar, B. (2016). What explains Cambodia’s success in reducing child stunting-2000-2014? PLoS One, 11(9), 1-22. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162668