skip to main content

Effects of Guided Antenatal Education Support Programs on Postnatal Depression, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among First-time Mothers in Kelantan, Malaysia

Salwismawati Badrin  -  School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
*Salziyan Badrin orcid scopus  -  Department of Family Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Raja Lexshimi Raja Gopal  -  Nursing Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Malaysia
Shah Reza Johan Noor  -  Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 Nurse Media Journal of Nursing
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

Background: First-time mothers may experience postnatal depression and a lack of social support, affecting their life satisfaction. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the application of guided antenatal education support programs to deal with such issues.

Purpose: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of guided antenatal education support programs on postnatal depression, social support, and life satisfaction among first-time mothers.

Methods: This quasi-experimental study involved a total of 72 first-time mothers. Convenience sampling was applied for participant selection, and no randomization was used. The participants were equally divided into the intervention group and the control group. A self-administrated questionnaire was used for data collection during the antenatal period (pretest) and six weeks postpartum (posttest). The risk of postnatal depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). In addition, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) were used to assess social support, and life satisfaction, respectively. The intervention group received a guided antenatal education support program, consisting of antenatal education sessions plus an extra 15-minute discussion and a support guidebook. The data were analyzed using a paired t-test and an independent t-test.

Results: There was a significant reduction in the risk of postnatal depression score in the intervention group (p<0.05) after receiving the guided antenatal education compared to the control group. Also, there was a significant increment of life satisfaction score (p<0.05) and social support score (p<0.05) after receiving guided antenatal education in the intervention group.

Conclusion: The guided antenatal education support is beneficial to reduce postnatal depression and increase life satisfaction and social support. Nurses and midwives should provide an integration of psychoeducation for first-time mothers, especially during pregnancy.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: antenatal education; social support; postnatal depression

Article Metrics:

  1. Afshari, P., Tadayon, M., Abedi, P., & Yazdizadeh, S. (2020). Prevalence and related factors of postpartum depression among reproductive aged women in Ahvaz, Iran. Health Care for Women International, 41(3), 255-265.
  2. Aishvarya, S., Maniam, T., Karuthan, C., Sidi, H., Nik Jaafar, N. R., & Oei, T. P. (2014). Psychometric properties and validation of the satisfaction with life scale in psychiatric and medical outpatients in Malaysia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55 (Suppl 1), S101-106.
  3. Akbari, V., Rahmatinejad, P., Shater, M. M., Vahedian, M., & Khalajinia, Z. (2020). Investigation of the relationship of perceived social support and spiritual well-being with postpartum depression. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 9, 174-174.
  4. Al Nasr, R. S., Altharwi, K., Derbah, M. S., Gharibo, S. O., Fallatah, S. A., Alotaibi, S. G., Almutairi, K. A., & Asdaq, S. M. B. (2020). Prevalence and predictors of postpartum depression in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A cross sectional study. PLoS One, 15(2), e0228666.
  5. Azidah, A. K., Shaiful, B. I., Rusli, N., & Jamil, M. Y. (2006). Postnatal depression and socio-cultural practices among postnatal mothers in Kota Bahru, Kelantan, Malaysia. Medical Journal of Malaysia, 61(1), 76-83.
  6. Chikalipo, M. C., Chirwa, E. M., & Muula, A. S. (2018). Exploring antenatal education content for couples in Blantyre, Malawi. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 18(1), 497.
  7. Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782-786.
  8. Dere, S. S., Varotariya, J. K., Ghildiyal, R. P., Sharma, S. A., & Kaur, D. M. S. (2019). Antenatal preparedness for motherhood and its association with antenatal anxiety and depression in first time pregnant women from India. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 28(2), 255-261.
  9. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.
  10. Entsieh, A. A., & Hallström, I. K. (2016). First-time parents’ prenatal needs for early parenthood preparation - A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative literature. Midwifery, 39, 1-11.
  11. Esmaelzadeh Saeieh, S. P., Rahimzadeh, M. P., Yazdkhasti, M. P., & Torkashvand, S. M. (2017). Perceived social support and maternal competence in primipara women during pregnancy and after childbirth. International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery, 5(4), 408-416
  12. Gebuza, G., Kaźmierczak, M., Mieczkowska, E., Gierszewska, M., & Kotzbach, R. (2014). Life satisfaction and social support received by women in the perinatal period. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 23(4), 611-619.
  13. Hildingsson, I., Dalén, K., Sarenfelt, L., & Ransjö-Arvidson, A.-B. (2013). First-time parents’ perception of antenatal education in Sweden. International Journal of Childbirth, 3(1), 28-38.
  14. Kamalifard, M., Yavarikia, P., Babapour Kheiroddin, J., Salehi Pourmehr, H., & Iraji Iranagh, R. (2013). The effect of peers support on postpartum depression: A single-blind randomized clinical trial. Journal of Caring Sciences, 2(3), 237-244.
  15. Kheirabadi, G. R., Maracy, M. R., Barekatain, M., Salehi, M., Sadri, G. H., Kelishadi, M., & Cassy, P. (2009). Risk factors of postpartum depression in rural areas of Isfahan Province, Iran. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 12(5), 461-467
  16. Mesina, A. M., Kjerulff, K. H., Deimling, T., Phaeton, R., & Repke, J. T. (2017). Association between partner-relationship satisfaction during pregnancy and maternal postpartum depression. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 129(5).
  17. Milgrom, J., Schembri, C., Ericksen, J., Ross, J., & Gemmill, A. W. (2011). Towards parenthood: An antenatal intervention to reduce depression, anxiety and parenting difficulties. Journal of Affective Disorders, 130(3), 385-394.
  18. Missler, M., van Straten, A., Denissen, J., Donker, T., & Beijers, R. (2020). Effectiveness of a psychoeducational intervention for expecting parents to prevent postpartum parenting stress, depression and anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 20(1), 658.
  19. Munaf, S., & Siddiqui, B. (2013). Relationship of postnatal depression with life and marital satisfaction and its comparison in joint and nuclear family system. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 733-738.
  20. Nelson, A. M. (2003). Transition to motherhood. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 32(4), 465-477.
  21. Ng, C., Nurasikin, M., Loh, H. S., Yee, A., & Zainal, N. (2012). Factorial validation of the Malay version of multidimensional scale of perceived social support among a group of psychiatric patients. Malaysian Journal of Psychiatry, 21(2), 35-50
  22. Ngoo, Y. (2019). Human development index as a predictor of life satisfaction. Journal of Population and Social Studies, 27, 70-86.
  23. Niaghiha, M., Baglooei, M., Mafi, M., & Taherpour, M. (2019). Spiritual well-being and life satisfaction in pregnant women: The mediating role of social support. Social Health and Behavior, 2(3), 83-88.
  24. Omidvar, S., Faramarzi, M., Hajian-Tilak, K., & Nasiri Amiri, F. (2018). Associations of psychosocial factors with pregnancy healthy life styles. PLOS ONE, 13(1), e0191723-e0191723.
  25. Ortiz Collado, M. A., Saez, M., Favrod, J., & Hatem, M. (2014). Antenatal psychosomatic programming to reduce postpartum depression risk and improve childbirth outcomes: A randomized controlled trial in Spain and France. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 14, 22.
  26. Swift, E. M., Zoega, H., Stoll, K., Avery, M., & Gottfreðsdóttir, H. (2020). Enhanced antenatal care: Combining one-to-one and group antenatal care models to increase childbirth education and address childbirth fear. Women and Birth, 34(4), 381-388.
  27. van Scheppingen, M. A., Denissen, J. J. A., Chung, J. M., Tambs, K., & Bleidorn, W. (2018). Self-esteem and relationship satisfaction during the transition to motherhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(6), 973-991.
  28. Vismara, L., Rollè, L., Agostini, F., Sechi, C., Fenaroli, V., Molgora, S., Neri, E., Prino, L. E., Odorisio, F., Trovato, A., Polizzi, C., Brustia, P., Lucarelli, L., Monti, F., Saita, E., & Tambelli, R. (2016). Perinatal parenting stress, anxiety, and depression outcomes in first-time mothers and fathers: A 3- to 6-months postpartum follow-up study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(938).
  29. Yaqoob, N., Arshid, M., Zaib Un, N., Jabbar, Z., & Fatima, K. (2021). Sadness along with happiness: Depression and satisfaction with life among postpartum women in Faisalabad. Health Psychology Research, 8(3), 8960-8960.
  30. Yim, I. S., Tanner Stapleton, L. R., Guardino, C. M., Hahn-Holbrook, J., & Dunkel Schetter, C. (2015). Biological and psychosocial predictors of postpartum depression: Systematic review and call for integration. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 99-137.
  31. Yu, M., Qiu, T., Liu, C., Cui, Q., & Wu, H. (2020). The mediating role of perceived social support between anxiety symptoms and life satisfaction in pregnant women: A cross-sectional study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 18(1), 223.
  32. Zarrabi Jourshari, F., Zargham Hajebi, M., Saravani, S., & Eghbali, Z. (2020). The effect of antenatal physiological classes on depression, anxiety and social support in the last month of pregnancy. Journal of Health and Care, 22(1), 65-74.
  33. Zimet, G. D., Powell, S. S., Farley, G. K., Werkman, S., & Berkoff, K. A. (1990). Psychometric characteristics of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55(3-4), 610-617.

Last update:

  1. The effect of prenatal education on fear of childbirth, pain intensity during labour and childbirth experience: a scoping review using systematic approach and meta-analysis

    Zohreh Alizadeh-Dibazari, Somayeh Abdolalipour, Mojgan Mirghafourvand. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 23 (1), 2023. doi: 10.1186/s12884-023-05867-0
  2. Enhancing antenatal education in Pakistan: an audit and recommendations

    Maliha Abbas, Shelina Bhamani, Yasmin Kanjani, Lumaan Sheikh. BMC Women's Health, 23 (1), 2023. doi: 10.1186/s12905-023-02799-x

Last update: 2024-04-19 09:20:30

No citation recorded.