skip to main content

Determinant Factors of Diabetes Prevention Behavior in Students with Diabetes Mellitus Risk

Yolanda Sri Bhunga  -  Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Indonesia
*Arif Setyo Upoyo orcid scopus  -  Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Indonesia
Nuriya Nuriya  -  Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2023 Nurse Media Journal of Nursing
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
Abstract

Background:  The trend of diabetes cases has shifted to younger ages, starting at the age of 15 years old, due to unhealthy lifestyles. Researchers have discovered that health students also tend to have a poor lifestyle. Students are associated with emotional activity and busyness, but no research has examined the relationship between these conditions and diabetes prevention behavior. 

Purpose: This study examined determinant factors affecting diabetes prevention behavior in college students with diabetes mellitus risk.

Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design, utilizing random sampling to gather data from 209 college students with diabetes risk. The instruments used in this study included adaptations of the Diabetes Prevention Behavior questionnaire, the modified Diabetes Management Time Questionnaire (DMTQ), the Perceived Behavioral Control, and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Data analysis encompassed One-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman’s rank, and multiple linear regression.

Results: The study found a significant relationship between diabetes management time (p=0.001) and emotional intelligence (p=0.000) with diabetes prevention behavior. Emotional intelligence emerged as the dominant influencing factor (B=0.332). Conversely, no significant relationships were observed between perceived behavior control (p=0.223), class (p=0.734), sex (p=0.231), study major (p=0.263), age (p=0.064), and diabetes mellitus risk (p=0.664) with diabetes prevention behavior.

Conclusion: This study revealed a significant relationship between diabetes management time, emotional intelligence, and diabetes prevention behavior. Emotional intelligence emerged as the key factor affecting diabetes prevention behavior, highlighting the need for focused interventions to enhance emotional intelligence and improve diabetes management among college students.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Diabetes; emotional intelligence; perceived behavior control; prevention behavior; time management
Funding: No

Article Metrics:

  1. Abrignani, M. G., Lucà, F., Favilli, S., Benvenuto, M., Rao, C. M., Di Fusco, S. A., Gabrielli, D., & Gulizia, M. M. (2019). Lifestyles and cardiovascular prevention in childhood and adolescence. Pediatric Cardiology, 40(6), 1113–1125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00246-019-02152-w
  2. Ajzen, I. (2019). TPB questionnaire construction: Constructing a theory of planned behaviour questionnaire. University of Massachusetts Amherst. http://people.umass.edu/~aizen/pdf/tpb.measurement.pdf
  3. Ajzen, I. (2020). The theory of planned behavior: Frequently asked questions. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 2(4), 314–324. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbe2.195
  4. Al-Harbi, B. (2017). Eliciting salient beliefs about physical activity among female adolescents in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study. World Journal Public Health, 2(3), 116–123. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjph.20170203.15
  5. Ali, M. K., Bullard, K. M. K., Imperatore, G., Benoit, S. R., Rolka, D. B., Albright, A. L., & Gregg, E. W. (2019). Reach and use of diabetes prevention services in the United States, 2016-2017. JAMA Network Open, 2(5), e193160. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3160
  6. Alshutwi, S., Alkhanfari, H., & Sweedan, N. (2019). The influence of time management skills on stress and academic performance level among nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 10(1), 96. https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v10n1p96
  7. Anggraini, U. M. (2016). Pengaruh program edukasi dengan media audio visual dan tertulis terhadap perilaku pencegahan diabetes melitus dan kualitas hidup pada warga Pedukuhan Kasihan [The influence of educational programs using audio-visual and written media on diabetes mellitus and quality of life in Kasihan Village] [Undergraduate thesis, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta]. http://repository.umy.ac.id/handle/123456789/2775
  8. Antwi, J., Lavin, R., Sullivan, S., & Bellavia, M. (2020). Perception of and risk factors for type 2 diabetes among students attending an upstate New York college: A pilot study. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, 12(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-020-00535-1
  9. Atmadja, T. F. A., Yunianto, A. E., Yuliantini, E., Haya, M., Faridi, A., & Suryana, S. (2020). Gambaran sikap dan gaya hidup sehat masyarakat Indonesia selama pandemi Covid-19 19 [An overview of the healthy attitudes and lifestyles of Indonesian people during the Covid-19 pandemic]. AcTion: Aceh Nutrition Journal, 5(2), 195-202. https://doi.org/10.30867/action.v5i2.355
  10. Azwar, S. (2012). Penyusunan skala psikologi [Preparation of psychological scales] (2nd ed.). Pustaka Pelajar
  11. Beigrezaei, S., Ghiasvand, R., Feizi, A., & Iraj, B. (2019). Relationship between dietary patterns and incidence of type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 10(122), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM
  12. Busse, P., & Miranda, J. J. (2018). Perceived behavioral control as a potential precursor of walking three times a week: Patient’s perspectives. PLoS ONE, 13(2), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192915
  13. Chanie, M. G., Amsalu, E. T., & Ewunetie, G. E. (2020). Assessment of time management practice and associated factors among primary hospitals employees in north Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. PLoS ONE, 15(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227989
  14. Chen, H.-F., Jiang, J. Y., Chen, M.-H., Lin, R., Jerence, S. W. O., Chang, C.-H., & Chou, C.-C. (2023). Gender differences in cognitive function and its associated factors among older adults with type 2 diabetes. Geriatric Nursing, 52, 165–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2023.05.017
  15. Choi, J. (2020). Impact of stress levels on eating behaviors among college students. Nutrients, 12(5), 1241. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051241
  16. Damayanti, M. R., Antari, G. A. A., & Nopriani, N. L. P. (2021). Effect of a ten-week short message service-based intervention on self-management of type-2 diabetes patients in Bali, Indonesia. Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 11(2), 177–186. https://doi.org/10.14710/nmjn.v11i2.35257
  17. Dyussenbayev, A. (2017). Age periods of human life. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 4(6), 258–263. https://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.46.2924
  18. Feldman, A. L., Long, G. H., Johansson, I., Weinehall, L., Fhärm, E., Wennberg, P., Norberg, M., Griffin, S. J., & Rolandsson, O. (2017). Change in lifestyle behaviors and diabetes risk: Evidence from a population-based cohort study with 10 year follow-up. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0489-8
  19. Finurillah, K. (2021). Hubungan pengetahuan DM dengan faktor risiko DM tipe 2 yang dapat dimodifikasi pada mahasiswa Unsoed [The relationship between DM knowledge and risk factors for type 2 DM that can be modified in Unsoed students] [Undergraduate thesis, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman]. http://repository.unsoed.ac.id/10181/
  20. Goleman, D. (2006). Emotional intelligence. Bantam Dell
  21. González-Valero, G., Zurita-Ortega, F., Lindell-Postigo, D., Conde-Pipó, J., Grosz, W. R., & Badicu, G. (2020). Analysis of self-concept in adolescents before and during COVID-19 lockdown: Differences by gender and sports activity. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(18), 7792. https://doi.org/10.3390/SU12187792
  22. Hailu, F. B., Moen, A., & Hjortdahl, P. (2019). Diabetes self-management education (DSME) – Effect on knowledge, self-care behavior, and self-efficacy among type 2 diabetes patients in Ethiopia: A controlled clinical trial. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity, 12, 2489–2499. https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S223123
  23. Hamasaki, H. (2016). Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review. World Journal of Diabetes, 7(12), 243. https://doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v7.i12.243
  24. Hassanzabeh, R., & Ebadi, A. G. (2007). Measure the share of the effective factors and time management. World Applied Sciences Journal, 2(3), 168–174. https://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj2(3)/4.pdf
  25. Hill-Briggs, F., Adler, N. E., Berkowitz, S. A., Chin, M. H., Gary-Webb, T. L., Navas-Acien, A., Thornton, P. L., & Haire-Joshu, D. (2021). Social determinants of health and diabetes: A scientific review. Diabetes Care, 44(1), 258–279. https://doi.org/10.2337/dci20-0053
  26. Huang, T. T. K., & Goran, M. I. (2003). Prevention of type 2 diabetes in young people: A theoretical perspective. Pediatric Diabetes, 4(1), 38–56. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-5448.2003.00022.x
  27. Indreica, E. S. (2019). Time management and healthy food - ascertaining study. Bulletin of the Transilvania Universityof Braşov, Series VII: Social Sciences and Law, 12(61), 229–236. https://doi.org/10.31926/but.ssl.2019.12.61.2.6
  28. Isnanda, S. A. (2019). Pengaruh attitude, subjective norm, dan perceived behavioral control terhadap intention dalam perilaku preventif diabetes tipe II pada mahasiswa FKM Universitas Airlangga [The influence of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on intention of diabetes prevention behavior in students of Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga] [Undergraduate thesis, Universitas Airlangga]. https://repository.unair.ac.id/90071/
  29. Karana, K. P. (2021). Indonesia: Tingkat obesitas di kalangan orang dewasa berlipat ganda selama dua dekade terakhir [Indonesia: Obesity rates among adults have doubled over the past two decades]. UNICEF Indonesia. https://www.unicef.org/indonesia/id/press-releases/indonesia-tingkat-obesitas-di-kalangan-orang-dewasa-berlipat-ganda-selama-dua-dekade
  30. Kharono, B., Nabisere, R., Kiddu Persis, N., Nakakeeto, J., Openy, A., & Bakeera Kitaka, S. (2017). Knowledge, attitudes, and perceived risks related to diabetes mellitus among university students in Uganda: A cross-sectional study. East African Health Research Journal, 1(2), 105–112. https://doi.org/10.24248/eahrj.v1i2.556
  31. Kristjansson, A. L., Mann, M. J., Sigfusson, J., Thorisdottir, I. E., Allegrante, J. P., & Sigfusdottir, I. D. (2020). Development and guiding principles of the icelandic model for preventing adolescent substance use. Health Promotion Practice, 21(1), 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839919849032
  32. Larijani, T., Aghajani, M., Zamani, N., & Ghadirian, F. (2017). Assertiveness and the factors affecting it among nursing students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. International Journal of New Technology and Research, 3(5), 263293
  33. Lestari, R. A., Sari, C. W. M., & Kurniawan, T. (2018). Gambaran persepsi mahasiswa terhadap perilaku pencegahan diabetes mellitus di Fakultas Keperawatan Universitas Padjadjaran [Description of student perceptions of diabetes mellitus prevention behavior at the Faculty of Nursing, Padjadjaran University]. Jurnal Pendidikan Keperawatan Indonesia, 4(1), 60. https://doi.org/10.17509/jpki.v4i1.12345
  34. Lin, C. Y., Cheung, M. K. T., Hung, A. T. F., Poon, P. K. K., Chan, S. C. C., & Chan, C. C. H. (2020). Can a modified theory of planned behavior explain the effects of empowerment education for people with type 2 diabetes? Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 11, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042018819897522
  35. Lopez-Zafra, E., Ramos-álvarez, M. M., El Ghoudani, K., Luque-Reca, O., Augusto-Landa, J. M., Zarhbouch, B., Alaoui, S., Cortés-Denia, D., & Pulido-Martos, M. (2019). Social support and emotional intelligence as protective resources for wellbeing in Moroccan adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1529. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01529
  36. Magliano, D. J., Sacre, J. W., Harding, J. L., Gregg, E. W., Zimmet, P. Z., & Shaw, J. E. (2020). Young-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus - implications for morbidity and mortality. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 16(6), 321–331. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41574-020-0334-z
  37. Mahyarni, M. (2013). Theory of reasoned action dan theory of planned behavior: Sebuah kajian historis tentang perilaku [A historical study of behavior]. Jurnal El-Riyasah, 4(1), 13-23. https://doi.org/10.24014/jel.v4i1.17
  38. Mardiyono, M., Songwathana, P., & Petpichetchian, W. (2011). Concept analysis of perceived control. Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 1(2), 225–243. https://doi.org/10.14710/nmjn.v1i2.973
  39. Mauliya, I., Relianisa, R. Z., & Rokhyati, U. (2020). Lack of motivation factors creating poor academic performance in the context of graduate English department students. Linguists: Journal of Linguistics and Language Teaching, 6(2), 73-85. https://doi.org/10.29300/ling.v6i2.3604
  40. Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2020). Tetap produktif, cegah dan atasi diabetes mellitus [Stay productive, prevent and treat diabetes mellitus]. In pusat data dan informasi kementrian kesehatan RI. Pusdatin Kemenkes. https://www.kemkes.go.id/article/view/20120100005/infodatin-tetap-produktif-cegah-dan-atasi-diabetes-melitus-2020.html
  41. Mohammadkarim, B., Mahmood, S., Ramin, R., Seyed Mojtaba, H., Mehdi, R., Amin, H. D., & Ahmad, A. (2015). Prioritization of factors affecting time management among health managers. International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health, 3(4), 169–174. https://doi.org/10.20286/ijtmgh-0304142
  42. Moneva, J. C., & Bolos, N. G. (2020). Assertiveness and performance tasks. International Journal of Social Science Research, 8(2), 143. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijssr.v8i2.16839
  43. Mongiello, L. L., Freudenberg, N., Jones, H., & Spark, A. (2016). Many college students underestimate diabetes risk. Journal of Allied Health, 45(2), 81–86. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27262464/
  44. Multazami, L. P. (2022). Hubungan stres, pola makan, dan aktivitas fisik dengan status gizi mahasiswa [The relationship between stress, diet and physical activity with the nutritional status of students]. Nutrizione: Nutrition Research and Development Journal, 2(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.15294/nutrizione.v2i1.52293
  45. Musyarrafah, S. (2016). Perbedaan kecerdasan emosi siswa berdasarkan program kelas dan jenis kelamin di SMAN 4 Malang, SMAN 5 Malang, dan SMAN 8 Malang [Differences in students’ emotional intelligence based on class program and gender at SMAN 4 Malang, SMAN 5 Malang, and SMAN 8] [Undergraduate thesis, UIN Malang]. http://etheses.uin-malang.ac.id/3687/
  46. Nakao, T., Takeishi, C., Nunoi, K., Matsuishi, T., Okamura, H., Sato, Y., Uchizono, Y., Mizuno, M., Yokobori, Y., & Shimizu, Y. (2020). Development of the daily time management scale for use by working people with type 2 diabetes. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 17(2), e12307. https://doi.org/10.1111/jjns.12307
  47. Oducado, R. M. F. (2021). Assertive behaviors of staff nurses. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(3), 179–185. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1424
  48. Pérez-Fernández, A., Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Gutiérrez-Cobo, M. J. (2021). The relationship between emotional intelligence and diabetes management: A systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(November). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.754362
  49. Pigaiani, Y., Zoccante, L., Zocca, A., Arzenton, A., Menegolli, M., Fadel, S., Ruggeri, M., & Colizzi, M. (2020). Adolescent lifestyle behaviors, coping strategies and subjective wellbeing during the covid-19 pandemic: An online student survey. Healthcare (Switzerland), 8(4), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040472
  50. Rao, T., Chaudhary, R., & Jain, J. (2017). Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes among young students of a Medical College in Central India. International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research, 8(11), 8. http://www.ssjournals.com/index.php/ijbar/article/view/4466
  51. Sarrionandia, A., & Mikolajczak, M. (2020). A meta-analysis of the possible behavioural and biological variables linking trait emotional intelligence to health. Health Psychology Review, 14(2), 220–244. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1641423
  52. Setyopranoto, I., Upoyo, A. S., Isworo, A., Sari, Y., & Vidyanti, A. N. (2021). Awareness of being at risk of stroke and its determinant factors among hypertensive patients in Banyumas, Indonesia. Hindawi, 7. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/srt/2021/6683256/
  53. Sirait, A. M., Sulistiowati, E., Sihombing, M., Kusuma, A., & Idayani, S. (2015). Incident and risk factor of diabetes mellitus in adults at Bogor: Prospective cohort study risk factors non comunicable diseases. Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan, 18(2), 151–160. https://doi.org/10.22435/hsr.v18i2.4315.151-160
  54. Suminar, G. R., Sari, C. W. M., & Shalahuddin, I. (2020). Pencegahan primer dan perilaku sehat pada setiap anggota keluarga yang tidak menderita diabetes melitus di dalam keluarga dengan diabetes melitus [Primary prevention and healthy behavior for every family member who does not suffer from diabetes mellitus]. Holistik Jurnal Kesehatan, 13(4), 318–326. https://doi.org/10.33024/hjk.v13i4.2061
  55. Summers-Gibson, L. (2021). The relationships between diabetes self-care, diabetes time management, and diabetes distress in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care, 47(4), 245–254. https://doi.org/10.1177/26350106211014438
  56. Trigueros, R., Aguilar-Parra, J. M., Cangas, A. J., Bermejo, R., Ferrandiz, C., & López-Liria, R. (2019). Influence of emotional intelligence, motivation and resilience on academic performance and the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits among adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(16). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162810
  57. Ulfah, M. (2018). Analisis faktor yang memengaruhi intensi masyarakat terhadap bantuan hidup dasar pada korban kecelakaan lalu lintas berdasarkan theory of planned behavior [Analysis of factors that influence people’s intentions towards basic life support for traffic accid] [Undergraduate thesis, Universitas Airlangga]. https://repository.unair.ac.id/85287/
  58. Venkataramani, M., Pollack, C. E., Yeh, H. C., & Maruthur, N. M. (2019). Prevalence and correlates of diabetes prevention program referral and participation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 56(3), 452–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.10.005
  59. Wahyuni, S., Prasetyowati, C. D., Pratiwi, W. N., & Alfiadi, K. (2021). Self-instructional training application on diabetic patients’ self-care behaviors. Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 11(2), 268–277. https://doi.org/10.14710/nmjn.v11i2.29360
  60. Wolters, C. A., & Brady, A. C. (2021). College students’ time management: A self-regulated learning perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 33(4), 1319–1351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09519-z
  61. Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2012). The emotional intelligence, health, and wellbeing nexus: What have we learned and what have we missed? Applied Psychology: Health and Wellbeing, 4(1), 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-0854.2011.01062.x

Last update:

  1. Investigating trait emotional intelligence and perceived support from family and friends as buffering factors against disordered eating behaviours and poor glycaemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Federica Ambrosini, Chiara Zampino, Pietro Lazzeroni, Roberta Francavilla, Brunella Iovane, Roberta Biolcati. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 29 (1), 2024. doi: 10.1080/02673843.2024.2373277

Last update: 2024-07-23 14:14:42

No citation recorded.